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Chapter 4

PSY 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Classical Conditioning, Alarm Clock, Operant Conditioning

Course Code
PSY 100
Andrea Friedrich

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Conditioning - learning new behaviors
Two components
Stimulus: anything that evokes a reaction
Alarm clock
Response: a reaction to a stimulus
Specific pattern of behavior
Waking up
Two types: Classical and Operant
Classical Conditioning
Acquiring a new responses to a previously neutral stimulus
Pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus that
leads to conditioned response
Pavlov’s dogs
Before Conditioning:
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) - something that naturally
causes a response
Unconditioned Response (UR) - natural response to the
unconditioned stimulus
Neutral stimulus (NS) - something that does not naturally
cause a response
During Conditioning:
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - same as neutral stimulus but
paired with unconditioned stimulus
After Conditioning:
Conditioned Response (CR) - response to the conditioned
Same as the unconditioned response but reacting
to the conditioned stimulus instead of the
unconditioned stimulus
Operant Conditioning
learning that occurs through reinforcement and punishment
The action:
Positive: adding something
Negative: subtracting something
The result:
Reinforcement: encourages a behavior
Positive : adding something pleasant, ex. giving a
child candy
Negative: taking away something unpleasant, ex.
being ungrounded
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