Bio 171 reading notes

127 Pages
126 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 171
Professor
Josephine Kurdziel
Semester
Winter

Description
Bio171LectureNotes01082014Lecture1LivingentityComposedofoneormorecellsPredominantlycarbonandwaterbasedcellularAcquiresenergyandmaterialfromitssurroundingsContainsheritablegeneticinfoCanrespondtoenvironmentalstimuliprocessinfoCanreproducePopulationsofthisentityevolveovermanygenerationsnotnecessarilynaturalselectionThepurposeofscienceistolearnaboutouruniverseScientificclaimscanbetestedbypeerreviewandreplicationisimportanttovalidatetheexperimentBiologistsAskquestionsProposehypothesespotentialexplanationsTestevaluatethesehypothesesusingevidencecollectedfromthenaturalworldthroughobservationalstudiesexperimentsandcomputersimulationsmathematicalmodelsInanexperimentavariableismanipulatedtotestahypothesisRedisandPasteursseparateexperimentstestingthespontaneousgenerationhypothesisHypothesispossibleexplanationforanaturalphenomenonHypothesesmustbefalsifiablemustmakespecificpredictionsthatcanbecriticallytestedbyexperimentsorobservationalstudiesConfirmingapredictionsupportsthathypothesisnegatingapredictionsuggestsitmaybewrongRedisexperimentdomaggotscomefromfliesPasteursexperimentdocellsarisespontaneouslyorfromothercellsSpontaneousgenerationhypothesiscellsarisespontaneouslyfromnonlivingmaterialsAllcellsfromcellshypothesiscellsareproducedonlywhenpreexistingcellsgrowanddivideSwanneckflaskexperimentExperimentaltreatmentmanipulatedonlyonevariableExposureofbrothtocolonizingcellsisdeterminedbyshapeofflaskallothervariableswereidenticalPublishedhisfindingsthatsupportedthecellsfromcellshypothesisPublishingmakingyourworkavailableforpeerevaluationiscriticalinscienceOtherscientistsindependentlyconfirmresultsreplicationPeerreviewandreproducibilityarekeyelementsinscienceLecture2TypesofscientificknowledgeFactanobservationthathasbeenrepeatedlyconfirmedTheoryanexplanationforbroadpatternsinnaturethathasbeentestedmanytimesandiswellsubstantiatedLawadescriptionorgeneralizationabouthowsomeaspectofthenaturalworldbehavesunderstatedconditionsHypothesisapossibleexplanationforsomenaturalphenomenonfortightlyfocusedquestionsALLtypesofscientificknowledgearesubjecttochangeDiversityofLifeBiologicalknowledgehaschangedovertimeScienceisselfcorrectingovertimeourunderstandingofthenaturalworldimprovesTheoriesCentraltoscientificthinkingTheoriesareoverarchingexplanationsthatexplainbroadpatternsinnaturearebasedonevidencehavebeentestedinmanywaysarewellsupportedandallowscientiststomakevalidpredictionsietheoryofbiologicalevolutionandcelltheoryTheoriesaresupportedmodifiedorreplacedasnewevidenceappearsScientificTheoriesAllscientifictheorieseventhemostacceptedareopentorevisioninlightofnewdiscoveriesUnlikeamathematicalproofascientifictheoryisalwaysopentofalsificationifnewevidenceisThewordproofshouldnotbeusedforscientifictheoriespresentedScientistsshouldneverclaimabsoluteknowledgeGoodExperimentalDesignControlgroupsExperimentalconditionsmustasbeconstantaspossibleReplicationiskeylargesamplesizesarebetterEcologyThescientificstudyofhoworganismsinteractwiththeirenvironmentEcologistsstrivetounderstandthefactorsthatdeterminethedistributionandabundanceoforganismsAbioticfactorsphysicalandchemicalfactorsBioticfactorstheotherspeciesthatliveinthesamehabitatWhyarethetropicswarmandthepolescoldRegionsofEarthatorneartheequatorreceivemoresunlightperunitareathanregionsthatareclosertothepolesWhyarethetropicswetDifferentialheatingcausesglobalaircirculationcellsHadleycellsThesegiantaircirculationcellsprofoundlyinfluenceregionalprecipitationpatternsWhatcausesseasonalitySeasonsregularannualfluctuationsintemperatureandprecipitationpatternsresultprimarilyfromthetiltoftheearthonitsaxisMajorclimaticforcesSunlightunitareavarieswithlatitudeHadleyCellsalternatingwetdryareasTiltoftheearthonitsaxisseasonalityAllcontributetogeneratingmajorterrestrialbiomesBiomesMajortypesofterrestrialecosystemsCharacterizedbyspecifictemperatureandprecipitationpatternsaverageannualtemperatureandaverageprecipitationaswellasvariationinthese2factorsClimatedeterminesthevegetationtypespresentVegetationtypeandprimaryproductivityinfluencestheotherspeciesthatwillbefoundinagivenhabitat
More Less

Related notes for BIOLOGY 171

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit