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Chapter 1

CHEM 130 Chapter 1: reading notes

4 pages31 viewsWinter 2019

Course Code
CHEM 130
Charles Mc Mory

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Thursday, January 10, 2019
Chapter 1: Chemical Foundations
1-1: Chemistry: An Atoms-First Approach
Observations do not make it immediately obvious that all matters is made of atoms
Science can be seen as a cynical process of observing, questioning, and theorizing
Develop theories and models in order to explain what we observe
Understanding atoms is crucial to understanding chemistry
Science of chem is dependent on properties of atom
We need to understand what atoms or molecules are “doing”—> how they interact
STM: scanning tunneling microscope allows us to see atoms
Uses electron current from tiny needle to probe surface of substance
Atoms connected to one another by “bridges”—> electrons that interconnect atoms
Matter consists of individual atoms
Atoms don’t behave like objects we see (macroscopic world)
Chem understands the connection between the macroscopic would that we
experience and the world of atoms and molecules. (microscopic world)
Everything results from only about 100 different kinds of atoms
The way the atoms are organized in a given substance determine the properties of the
ex. Water: 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen atoms
When electric current passes through water, it decomposes to hydrogen and oxygen—> these
chemical elements exist naturally as diatomic (two-atom) molecules
It takes 2 molecules of water to furnish the right number of oxygen and hydrogen atoms to
allow for this formation of the two-atom molecules
Why battery in car can explode if you
jump start it wrong—> hot water in
dead battery. current that flows through
—> causes hydrogen and oxygen to
form by decomposition of water—>
spark can causes accumulated
hydrogen and oxygen to explode,
forming water again
1-2: The Scientific Method
1) making observations (collecting data)
2) Suggesting a possible explanation (formulating a hypothesis)
3) Doing experiments to test the possible explanation (testing the hypothesis)
Science has a plan of action: a procedure
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