Ch.11: Development

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 111
Professor
Shelly Schreier
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 11: Development PRENATILITY:AWOMB WITH AVIEW Prenatal Development ● Zygote: fertilized egg that has chromosomes from sperm and egg ● Gender depends on whether sperm has X or Y chromosome ● Germinal stage: two-week period after conception ○ Zygote divides into cells and travels down fallopian tube and implants in uterus ● Embryonic stage: 2nd to 8th week ○ Cells begin differentiating, beating heart, body parts form ○ XY starts producing testosterone, XX do not ● Fetal stage: 9th week until birth ○ Has skeleton and muscles, can move ○ In last 3 months, size rapidly increases, fat develops on skin, digestive/respiratory systems mature ○ Brain cells form and start developing axons and dendrites, and myelination starts to occur ○ Brain is only 25% of adult size Prenatal Environment ● Placenta links bloodstream of mother to embryo/fetus, and all foods a woman eats can affect pregnancy ● Teratogens damage development process (e.g. lead, mercury, alcohol) ● Fetal alcohol syndrome: brain abnormalities, cognitive deficits can form ● Developing fetus is able to sense stimulation, such as mother’s voice INFANCYAND CHILDHOOD: BECOMING APERSON Perceptual and Motor Development ● Infants are responsive to visual stimuli, show habituation ● Infants can mimic facial expression and track social stimuli ● Motor development: development of ability to execute physical actions ● Reflexes: triggered by sensory stimulation patterns ● Cephalocaudal rule: motor skills emerge in sequence from head to toe ● Proximodistal rule: motor skills emerge in sequence from center to periphery Cognitive Development ● Cognitive development: development of the ability to think/understand ● Understand a) how the physical world works, b) how their minds represent it, and c) how other minds represent it ● Discovering the World Sensorimotor stage: birth through infancy ○ Use senses and movement to acquire information about environment ○ Constructing schemas, or models of how the world works ○ Assimilation: infants applying schemas to new situations ○ Accommodation: infants revising schemas due to new information ○ Do NOT understand object permanence, the idea that objects still exist even when not visible, but recent studies have shown that infants understand this earlier than Piaget thought. ● Discovering the Mind ○ Childhood is 18-24 months through adolescence (11-14 years) ○ Two stages: preoperational stage (2-6 years, learning about physical objects) and concrete operational stage (6-11 years, learning how actions can affect the objects) ○ Concrete operational can understand conservation, the idea that quantitative properties doesn’t change based on appearance, but preoperational can’t. ○ Why? Centration, focusing only on one property and excluding others, and children do not understand reversibility. Preoperational children do not understand difference between their mental representation of an object and the object itself ○ Formal operational stage (11 years to adulthood) ■ Solving of nonphysical problems ■ Reasoning about abstract concepts like love and liberty ● Discovering Other Minds ○ Egocentrism, failure to understand that observers see world differently than they do in preoperational stage ○ Children understand that people have different desires, but do not understand that other people have different emotional reactions based on their knowledge ○ Theory of mind, the idea that human behavior is guided by mental representations ○ Autistic children don’t acquire theory of mind, can’t understand inner life of others ○ Deaf children whose parents don’t use sign language also have delayed acquisition of theory of mind ○ Language, especially emotion-based language very important to theory of mind ○ Development is not stepwise, it’s continuous.Also, children acquire some of the abilities Piaget listed earlier than he thought ● Discovering Our Cultures ○ Lev Vygotsky suggested that cognitive development was more a result of child’s interaction with members of his/her culture rather than with concrete objects ○ Language and counting systems influential on development ○ Joint attention: ability to focus on what another is focused on ○ Social referencing: using another’s reaction as information about the world ○ Imitation: ability to do what another does or intends to do Social Development ● Becoming Attached ○ Lorenz- imprinting on geese occurs based on first moving object it sees ○ Bowlby claimed that baby cries, gurgles, coos, etc. to cause caregiver to stay close ○ Infants form attachments with a prim
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