PSYCH 112 Chapter 7: Chapter 7 Notes

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21 Oct 2015
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Malley Chapter 7 Notes
Agency
- Humans need to be both psychically and psychologically active to remain healthy
oHaving a goal can sometimes be so powerful as to keep us alive
Many examples of old people holding on until they finish a book, see a
loved one, etc.
Teleology: oriented toward and motivated by goals
- An inherent part of our nature
- At first, psychologists denied the existence of teleological motivations
oNot publically observable
oPhysiological underpinnings of teleology could not be identified
oInconsistent with biological evolution, because it presupposes a break between
humans and animals
oNo way to show that two instincts are different from one another
Is the only one of the above four objections that remains a problem
- The existence of teleological motivations is clear
oPurpose is required to explain why behavior persists until some goal is reached
oPurpose is required to explain the variability of behavior
oPurpose is required to explain the selective learning of behaviors
Only the behaviors that yield some reward are learned
Darwinism: our bodies are constructed by our genes for the sole purpose of propagating our
genes
- Sigmund Freud thought that humans are driven by the same instincts as humans
oLibido was the real motivation
But humans don’t behave like sex-crazed beings
Unlike rabbits, humans invest a great deal in each child
Humans have sex without the intent to reproduce
oFreud recognized those above problems and proposed that our deficit of sex is the
result of repression
We are as sexual as rabbits, but society reigns in our behavior and our
unconsciousness censors our sexual thoughts
oPsychosexual symbolism: the sex drive can be symbolically satisfied by engaging
in behavior resembling sex; might explain how non-sexual behaviors can be
motivated by sexual desires
Has two fundamental problems:
No clear distinction between conscious and unconscious
symbolism; how can people be repressed if they engage in
perfectly conscious sexual symbolism?
The process of identifying a psychological symbol is poorly
defined
Though it should be said that sexual symbolism does occur (ophidiophilia
is the love of snakes, for example)
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