PSYCH 112 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Reuptake, Oligodendrocyte, Somatic Nervous System

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21 Oct 2015
Chapter 3 Text Notes
Neuron anatomy:
Cell body (soma)- vital to survival of neuron, creates the components necessary to make the
Dendrites- extensions of the soma, act as neural “receivers” of information
Axons/axon terminals- act as neural “transmitters”, transmit synaptic vesicles through the axon
until they reach the axon terminal and burst to release neurotransmitters
Synapse- gap between neurons that neurotransmitters are released into and travel through
- Neurotransmitters (from the pre-synaptic neuron) in the synapse bind with receptor
cites along dendrites of other neurons (in the post-synaptic neuron) to facilitate
communication between neurons, called neurotransmission
oNeurotransmission can be halted by reuptake of neurotransmitters
Synaptic vesicles reabsorb the neurotransmitter
Glial cells- surrounding cells of the nervous system, have several types:
Astrocytes- involved in thought, memory, and immune system
- Abundant in the blood-brain barrier around blood vessels to block out large particles
and bacteria
Oligodendrocyte- promotes new connections among neurons and also make up the
myelin sheath
Node- gap in the myelin sheath that allows transmissions to be expedited by jumping between
- Facilitates “passive conduction” between stretches of myelin
Resting potential- the “potential difference” (voltage) of a neuron with no neurotransmitters
acting on it
Action potential- “all or none” response that sends positive charge traveling from soma to axon
- Initially creates very positive charge, but then overcompensates in its correction of
charge, so it becomes more negative than normal
Absolute refractory period- a brief interval after firing during which a neuron cannot fire again
Types of neurotransmitters:
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