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Chapter 12

PSYCH 270 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Token Economy, Antipsychotic, Family Therapy

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Mikaela Bradley
Chapter 12 Study Objectives
**Note there are multiple parts to some of the objectives
1) Define psychosis. (386)
Psychosis is a loss of contact with reality. People with schizophrenia and other mental
illnesses suffer from psychosis and their ability to perceive and respond to the environment
becomes disturbed that they might lose the ability to function well at home, in a social
environment, or at work.
2) Define schizophrenia and provide the DSM criteria. (386)
Those who suffer from schizophrenia deteriorate into an isolated wilderness of unusual
perceptions, odd thoughts, disturbed emotions, and motor abnormalities, regardless of any
previous functioning. The DSM criteria include that for one month, the individual displays
two or more of the following symptoms for the majority of the time: delusions,
hallucinations, disorganized speech, very abnormal motor activity, and/or negative
symptoms. The individual must also exhibit at least one of the following symptoms:
delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech. The functioning of the individual is
worse in various life spheres in comparison to prior to the diagnosis. Additionally, beyond
the one month, the individual must continue to display some degree of impaired
functioning for at least five months.
8) What brain structures are associated with schizophrenia and how? (397)
Other the past several decades, researches have linked schizophrenia to brain structure
abnormalities. Using brain scans, they have found that many people with schizophrenia
have enlarged ventricles, which are the brain cavities that contain cerebrospinal fluid. It
may be that enlarged ventricles are a sign that nearby parts of the brain have not developed
properly or been damaged, and perhaps these problems are the ones that help produce
schizophrenia. Furthermore, studies suggest that schizophrenic patients have smaller
temporal and frontal loves, smaller amount of cortical white and gray material, and
abnormal blood flow in certain areas of the brain. Other studies have linked schizophrenia
to abnormalities of the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus.
12) List the three characteristics that parents of those with schizophrenia often display.
Many studies suggest schizophrenia is related to family stress. Parents of those with
schizophrenia often display more conflict, have more difficulty communication with one
another, and are more critical of and overinvolved in their children’s lives.
Define expressed emotion and describe its relationship with schizophrenia. (400)
Some families are high in expressed emotion, meaning that family members often express
criticism, disapproval, and hostility toward one another and intrude on each other’s privacy.
People trying to recover from schizophrenia are four times more likely to relapse if they
live with a family high in expressed emotions.
15) Describe milieu therapy. Is it effective? (404)
Milieu therapy is a humanistic approach to institutional treatment based on the premise that
institutions can help patients recover by creating a climate that promotes self-respect,
responsible behavior, and meaningful activity. It was first used in 1953 by a London
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