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Chapter 5

PSYCH 270 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Dazed, The Fugue, Dissociative Identity Disorder

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Chapter 5 Study Objectives
**Note there are multiple parts to some of the objectives
1) Distinguish between stressor and stress response. (150)
A stressor is an event that creates the demands and a stress response is a person’s reactions
to that stressor. Stressors vary from being stuck in traffic to life-changing decisions such
as marriage. When a stressor is considered to be threatening, arousal and fear is a natural
response. A response is likely to contain physical, emotional, and cognitive components.
Stress reactions often contribute to psychological disorders, those who experience several
stressful events are more vulnerable to certain anxiety disorders.
3) List the ways in which acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD) are different? (153)
Acute stress disorder is diagnosed if the symptoms start within four weeks of a traumatic
event and do not last more than a month. A diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder would
be made is the symptoms begin either shortly after the traumatic events or months or years
afterward. At least half of the cases of ASD develop into PTSD.
4) List the symptoms of ASD and PTSD. (153)
Apart from the time of onset and duration of stress, the symptoms of ASD and PTSD are
very similar. First, the patient would re-experience the traumatic event through dreams or
memories and sometimes feel as though it is happening all over again. Next, the sufferer
will typically try to avoid a similar situation in the future. Third, people can feel detached
from others or develop apathy toward activities that they used to enjoy. Finally, the person
often has increased arousal, negative emotions, and guilt.
6) List and describe the factors related to the development of stress disorders.
(biological, genetic, personality, etc.) (158-161)
Many factors contribute to the development of stress disorders. First, there are biological
and genetic factors that contribute to this development. Traumatic events can trigger
physical changes in the brain and the body which can lead to severe stress reactions and
possibly to stress disorder. Some studies also show that a stress disorder may lead to further
biochemical arousal and could possibly damage certain areas of the brain. The specific
circuit of the brain that posttraumatic stress reactions typically affect include the
hippocampus and amygdala. The hippocampus plays roles in memory and regulation of
stress hormones. The amygdala helps control anxiety and other emotional responses. There
are also twins studies that show that there are genetic factors that contribute to stress
disorder and helps explain relationships between family members and disease prevalence.
Personality also affects stress disorders. Some studies suggest that people with certain
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