Study Guide: Chapters 2, 4, 5 and 7

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Robert Paynter

Alexandria Gold September 24 th Chapter Two | The Record of the Past Terms: Research design, a proposal in which the objectives of a project are set out and the strategy for recovering the relevant data is outlined. Fossil, the remains of bones and living materials preserved from earlier periods. Archaeological sites, places of past human activity that are preserved in the ground. Artifact, the material products of past societies. Feature, nonmovable artifacts or traces of past human activity such as an ancient fire hearth, a pit-dug in the ground, or a wall. Context, the specific location in the ground of an artifact or fossil and all associated materials. 1. Look at the picture on page thirty-six. What do you think is below Thompson Hall? Your house/apartment? I think below both would be a gas line, a sewer pipe and some very interesting objects as well. Chapter Four | Primates 1. Are humans descended from contemporary monkeys and apes? According to Darwin, humans share a common ancestor (now extinct) with living apes, but evolved along lines completely different from modern gorillas and chimpanzees. 2. What parts of the skeleton are the cranium and the post-cranium? The cranium provides insight into an animal’s vision, diet, cognitive abilities and posture. The post-cranium includes all of the bones in the body except for the skull. With this area of the brain we can discover a lot about the animal’s posture and locomotion which in consequence tells us about the animal’s adaptations to disparate environments 3. When did primates first evolve? Primates first evolved during the radiation of the placental mammals during the Paleocene epoch of the early Tertiary period, approximately 70 million to 55 million years ago. 4. What is the cornerstone of primate social life? The relationship between mothers and infants. Primates tend to have longer periods of maturation than other animals. During infancy their mothers, forming a lasting bond, care for primates. 5. Are most primates solitary or social animals? / What advantages come with social life? Primates are social animals, often living in troops. In groups, they are a more effective defense against predators, have enhanced food gathering, more inensive social learning, greater assistance in rearing offspring and increased reproductive opportunities. 6. What is social grooming? Social grooming refers to removing ticks, dirt, and debris from one another, as well as kissing, hugging, and sex. 7. How do primates tend to order their social relations? / What is dominance? By a dominance hierarchy, a social order that that characterizes the group living arrangements among primates. Dominance refers to the relative social status or rank of a primate, which is determined by ability to compete successfully with its peers for objects or value such as food and sexual partners. 8. What happens when dominance hierarchies are upset? When dominance hierarchies are upset violence and warfare may result. Chapter Five | Hominid Evolution 1. Discuss the biological characteristics and significance of the following fossils and/or site. Piltdown – (fraud) alleged specimen was accepted as a legitimate human ancestor and influenced interpretations
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