Study Guide: Chapters 7, 8 and 9

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Robert Paynter

Alexandria Gold October 18 , 2013 From Lecture: 1. What are the modern countries that make up Southwest Asia? Middle East, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Syria. 2. What plants and animals were found in the Fertile Crescent? Wild wheat for plants and sheep, goats and pigs for animals. 3. What inorganic materials were ancient people interested in and what are we today interested in from Southwest Asia? Back then we were interested in turquoise, gold lazuli, obsidian, wood and bitumen for jewelry. Today we are interested in oil! Chapter Seven | Paleolithic Cultures 1. What somatic traits are added in the Upper Pleistocene? What is the extrasomatic adaptation added in the Middle Paleolithic which completes the hunter-gatherer way of life? Where are these people living? What features distinguish the Mousterian technology from the preceding Achulean and Oldowan traditions? Those in the Middle Paleolithic developed useful tools which aided in their hunting and gathering practices. By this time Middle Paleolithics are building their own shelters and since some of these shelters had storage pits, it is thought that these shelters were stayed in for long periods of time. Mousterian technology could have been used for cutting, leather working, piercing, food processing, woodworking, hunting and producing weapons. 2. What evidence is there for ideological and ritual behavior in the Middle Paleolithic? There is no strong evidence of ritual behavior but there is proof that Neanderthals buried their dead and looked after the disabled. 3. Is Neanderthal a distinct hominid species? No, they are merely representatives of the Middle Paleolithic. 4. What is a typological approach to understanding the world? What is a populationist approach to understanding the world? Typological means type is rear and variation is error. Populationist believes in variation but says that type is convenient fiction. 5. When was the Upper Paleolithic? Where are humans found, probably by the beginning and certainly by the end of this period? 50,000 to 10,000 years ago. In this era people were in Asia and also in Africa. 6. What are blade technologies, spear throwers and composite tools? Blades were narrow, long flakes that had all sorts of uses as knives, harpoons and spear points. Composite tools are implements fashioned from several pieces such as harpoons or spear throwers which were long, thin pieces of wood or ivory that extended the reach of the hunter’s arm. 7. What did folks at Mezhirich make their house from? Mammoth bones. 8. Where are Upper Paleolithic cave paintings found? Spain and France. 9. What other forms of “art” objects are found in the Upper Paleolithic? Paintings, jewelry, beads, ornaments and sculptures. 10. When and from where did people first discover the Western Hemisphere? The first people to come over were from Asia in the Upper Paleolithic era. 11. What is a land bridge and what was the name of the bridge between Asia and North America? Beringia. – a land bridge allowed individuals to cross from location to another. 12. When did humans first arrive in Australia? 50,000 years ago. 13. Was there a land bridge between Australia and New Guinea? Between the linked Australia-New Guinea and southwest Asia? No, there was no land mass but they were connected by a continental shelf. Chapter Eight | The Origins of Domestication and Settled Life Terms: Neolithic – The new stone age, beginning before 10,000 years, marks the shift from food gathering to food production. Cultivation – The practice of growing plants. Domestication – The systematic, artificial selection of traits in plants and animals to make them more useful to human beings. Artificial selection – The process in which people encourage the production of certain plants or animals and present others from breeding. Oasis theory – At the end of the Pleistocene a major climate change transformed the environment in regions like Southwest Asia and made new subsistence strategies necessary. This eventually led to agriculture. Population theories – Societies will intensify their cultivation practices only when they are forced to by rising population pressure on the available resources. Coevolution theories – Humans unintentionally prompted the survival and dispersal of certain types of plants through activities like weeding, storing, irrigating and burning fields. 1. What is broad spectrum collection and what climate and natural environmental changes were associated with the shift to broad spectrum collecting? Broad spectrum collection is the exploitation of varied food resources in local environments. Some people experienced permanent changes while others maintained their nomadic lifestyles. The San of South Africa and Alaskan Eskimos still rely on naturally occurring plant and animal resources. 2. What are microliths and ground stone tools? Microliths are the most common Epipaleolithic and Mesolithic tools. They are small flakes of stones that were used for a variety of purposes such as harpoon barbs, knife blades and sickles. The ground stone was used to make nuts and seeds more palatable by pulverizing them between a handheld grinding stone and a larger stone slab or rock. 3. Where is the Fertile Crescent and the Tigris and Euphrates River? The Fertile Crescent is between the Persian Gulf, Mediterranean sea and Red Sea. It surrounds Mesopotamia and Anatolia. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers are two separate rivers that join together and stream into the Persian Gulf. They are both considered in the Fertile Crescent. 4. Roughly when did the gatherer-hunter way of life first give way to domestication? This occurred when people picking the seeds that were easiest to pick and people started to keep more docile and easily tamed animals. All around 10,000 years ago. 5. Where were each of the following domesticated?  Dog, Mesoamerica  Maize, Mesoamerica  Turkey, Mesoamerica  Potato, Andean Uplands  Tomato, Andean Uplands  Tobacco, Eastern Brazil  Horse, Sout
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