November 2 , 2013
Chapter Fifteen | Band (Egalitarian) Societies
Fissioning – The moving of people from one group to another or the fragmenting
of the group into smaller units when the population begins to increase and food
or other material resources become scarce.
Reciprocity – The widespread sharing of goods and services in a society.
Patrilocal residence – Newly married couples residing with the husband’s father.
Matrilocal residence – Requires a man to reside with his wife’s parents.
1. Are egalitarian societies “living fossils” of ancient ways of life or
are they made up of “fully modern humans just like you and me?”
in which people “have complex beliefs and a tremendous amount
of cultural knowledge about the plants, animals, medical
techniques, and environments in which they have been living?
Societies like ours!
2. Today are egalitarian societies found in all environments of the
No, they are only found in limited, marginal environments. They are not suitable
for intensive agricultural and tremendous population increases.
3. What were the environments of egalitarian societies, say, about
15,000 years ago?
Marginal environments – Deserts, tropical rain forests and Arctic areas.
4. Why has there been a shrinkage in the environment supporting
Too much investment in labor and capital were needed to irrigate deserts, slash
down tropical rain forests for agriculture, or cultivate crops in the Arctic.
5. Name and locate and identify the marginal environment of the
San, Mbuti, Shoshone and Inuit.
San – Kalahari desert in southwestern Africa.
Mbuti – Ituri tropical rain forest. Central Africa.
Shoshone – Native American Indian group. Desert. Now western North
Inuit (Eskimo) – Arctic regions. Northern regions, above North America.
6. Is sharing a noble act or characteristic of reciprocal exchange?
7. Do men always dominate women in egalitarian societies?
No! Men or women have more or less equal status. 8. Are women and men always equal in egalitarian societies?
No, men and women are not always considered equal. It depends on the society;
in the San and Agta women have more equality but in the Eskimos, women have
a lower status because there is less for them to do hunting-wise. Also, men
typically have more inherent cultural advantages universally.
9. What seems to be the cause of gender hierarchies (not just gender
It depends on how useful women are in the society – in the San, women are able
to participate in political decision making. In societies in which female
contributions to the food supply are less critical or less valued, female status
10. Are egalitarian societies characterized by strong or weak
leaders? How is it that leaders lead?
No, egalitarian leaders do not hold any large amount of power. One member of
the San said that when you are the leader “All you get is the blame if things go
wrong.” Leadership positions are transient, as in no one stays in power for long
amounts of time. Leaders are only called upon when they are needed with specific
11.What are the practices of reverse dominance which inhibit the
development of dominating leaders?
Reverse dominance keeps anyone from becoming coercive or politically
dominating the group in any manner. Ensures that the whole group will have
control over anybody who tries to assert political power or authority over them.
12.What are the concepts of cosmic religion and animism?
Cosmic religions are intimately associated with nature. The seasons, inorganic
matter such as rocks, water and mountains are all invested with sacred
Animism is the belief that spirits reside within all organic and inorganic
substances. Describes a very respectful relationship between humans and others,
including animals, plants and inorganic objects in the cultural environment.
13.Who believes in Dreamtime as their cosmic religion?
The Australian Aborigines. – Dreamtime refers to the existence in the “other
world” where a person goes in dreams and visions and after death.
14.What is the name of the practice and person that helps restore
people to well being by coping with soul loss in Inuit religion?
The Inuits cured soul loss through Shamanism in which Shamans, usually male,
aided those in need. Chapter Twenty | Globalization, Culture and Indigenous Societies
Neoliberalism – A post Cold War philosophical and political theory that
emphasizes the development of capitalist, nongovernmental, market-based
strategies for economic development throughout the world.
Ethnocide – A process in which a dominant group or society forces other groups
to abandon their traditional language and culture.
Genocide – The physical extermination of a particular ethnic group in a society.
1. What is globalization and what are some characteristics of it, like
those associated with postindustrialization?
Globalization is the incorporation of global factors into the local culture.
Postindustrial societies refers to societies in which the tertiary or service sector of
the economy predominates.
2. What are the names of the companies in the web of companies that
publish/produce your textbook?
Pearson Publishing published this book, which is owned by Viacom, which owns
subsidiary companies like Simon and Shuster, Prentice Hall, and Allyn and Bacon
which all publish books and educational materials all over the world.
3. What is meant by the first, second, third and fourth worlds?
First world is composed of modern industrial states with predominantly
capitalist economic systems. The became industrialized “first.”
Examples; Great Britain, Western Europe, Australia, Canada, New
Zealand, Japan and the United States.
Second world consists of industrial states that have predominantly socialist
Examples; former Soviet Union countries and former socialist countries of
Eastern Europe such as Poland and Hungary.
Third world refers to pre-modern agricultural states that maintain
Examples; most of Latin America, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.
Fourth word refers to the “first nations.” These nations were the initial native
peoples in a particular region.
4. What is the major difference between how modernization theory
describes and accounts for differences in the world today and how
dependency and world-syste