Study Guide: Chapters 15, 20 and 21

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Robert Paynter

Alexandria Gold November 2 , 2013 Chapter Fifteen | Band (Egalitarian) Societies Terms: Fissioning – The moving of people from one group to another or the fragmenting of the group into smaller units when the population begins to increase and food or other material resources become scarce. Reciprocity – The widespread sharing of goods and services in a society. Patrilocal residence – Newly married couples residing with the husband’s father. Matrilocal residence – Requires a man to reside with his wife’s parents. 1. Are egalitarian societies “living fossils” of ancient ways of life or are they made up of “fully modern humans just like you and me?” in which people “have complex beliefs and a tremendous amount of cultural knowledge about the plants, animals, medical techniques, and environments in which they have been living? Societies like ours! 2. Today are egalitarian societies found in all environments of the world? No, they are only found in limited, marginal environments. They are not suitable for intensive agricultural and tremendous population increases. 3. What were the environments of egalitarian societies, say, about 15,000 years ago? Marginal environments – Deserts, tropical rain forests and Arctic areas. 4. Why has there been a shrinkage in the environment supporting egalitarian/band societies? Too much investment in labor and capital were needed to irrigate deserts, slash down tropical rain forests for agriculture, or cultivate crops in the Arctic. 5. Name and locate and identify the marginal environment of the San, Mbuti, Shoshone and Inuit.  San – Kalahari desert in southwestern Africa.  Mbuti – Ituri tropical rain forest. Central Africa.  Shoshone – Native American Indian group. Desert. Now western North America.  Inuit (Eskimo) – Arctic regions. Northern regions, above North America. 6. Is sharing a noble act or characteristic of reciprocal exchange? Yes! 7. Do men always dominate women in egalitarian societies? No! Men or women have more or less equal status. 8. Are women and men always equal in egalitarian societies? No, men and women are not always considered equal. It depends on the society; in the San and Agta women have more equality but in the Eskimos, women have a lower status because there is less for them to do hunting-wise. Also, men typically have more inherent cultural advantages universally. 9. What seems to be the cause of gender hierarchies (not just gender differences)? It depends on how useful women are in the society – in the San, women are able to participate in political decision making. In societies in which female contributions to the food supply are less critical or less valued, female status lowers. 10. Are egalitarian societies characterized by strong or weak leaders? How is it that leaders lead? No, egalitarian leaders do not hold any large amount of power. One member of the San said that when you are the leader “All you get is the blame if things go wrong.” Leadership positions are transient, as in no one stays in power for long amounts of time. Leaders are only called upon when they are needed with specific tasks. 11.What are the practices of reverse dominance which inhibit the development of dominating leaders? Reverse dominance keeps anyone from becoming coercive or politically dominating the group in any manner. Ensures that the whole group will have control over anybody who tries to assert political power or authority over them. 12.What are the concepts of cosmic religion and animism? Cosmic religions are intimately associated with nature. The seasons, inorganic matter such as rocks, water and mountains are all invested with sacred significance. Animism is the belief that spirits reside within all organic and inorganic substances. Describes a very respectful relationship between humans and others, including animals, plants and inorganic objects in the cultural environment. 13.Who believes in Dreamtime as their cosmic religion? The Australian Aborigines. – Dreamtime refers to the existence in the “other world” where a person goes in dreams and visions and after death. 14.What is the name of the practice and person that helps restore people to well being by coping with soul loss in Inuit religion? The Inuits cured soul loss through Shamanism in which Shamans, usually male, aided those in need. Chapter Twenty | Globalization, Culture and Indigenous Societies Terms: Neoliberalism – A post Cold War philosophical and political theory that emphasizes the development of capitalist, nongovernmental, market-based strategies for economic development throughout the world. Ethnocide – A process in which a dominant group or society forces other groups to abandon their traditional language and culture. Genocide – The physical extermination of a particular ethnic group in a society. 1. What is globalization and what are some characteristics of it, like those associated with postindustrialization? Globalization is the incorporation of global factors into the local culture. Postindustrial societies refers to societies in which the tertiary or service sector of the economy predominates. 2. What are the names of the companies in the web of companies that publish/produce your textbook? Pearson Publishing published this book, which is owned by Viacom, which owns subsidiary companies like Simon and Shuster, Prentice Hall, and Allyn and Bacon which all publish books and educational materials all over the world. 3. What is meant by the first, second, third and fourth worlds? First world is composed of modern industrial states with predominantly capitalist economic systems. The became industrialized “first.”  Examples; Great Britain, Western Europe, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Japan and the United States. Second world consists of industrial states that have predominantly socialist economies.  Examples; former Soviet Union countries and former socialist countries of Eastern Europe such as Poland and Hungary. Third world refers to pre-modern agricultural states that maintain traditionalism.  Examples; most of Latin America, Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Fourth word refers to the “first nations.” These nations were the initial native peoples in a particular region. 4. What is the major difference between how modernization theory describes and accounts for differences in the world today and how dependency and world-syste
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