Study Guide: Chapters 16, 20 & 22

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Robert Paynter

Alexandria Gold November 26 th *Reference: “Tribe” and “chiefdom” are both referred to as ranked societies. Chapter Sixteen | Tribes Define: Patrilineal descent group: composed of people who trace their descent through males from a common, known male ancestor. These are the predominant form of lineage in tribal societies. Matrilineal descent group: members calculate descent through female line from a commonly known female ancestor. These groups occur most frequently in horticultural societies but they are not the most common organization. Bilateral descent group: relatives are traced through both the maternal and paternal sides of the family simultaneously. 1. Where do the Yanamamo, Iroquois, Tsembaga, Northwest Coast peoples, and Polynesians live? The Yanamamo live in the tropical forests of South America, between Brazil and Venezuela, along the South Atlantic Ocean. The Iroquois live in North America, along the North Atlantic Ocean. The Tsembaga lived in the Melanesian Islands of Papua New Guinea, located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. Northwest Coast peoples are primarily located along the northwest Coast, bordered by the Pacific Ocean in the west and mountains in the east. The Polynesians are a tribe that extends westward from Hawaii to New Zealand, and live on the Pacific Islands, in the Pacific Ocean. 2. How do ranked societies compare to foraging (or egalitarian/band) societies in terms of population, size, density, and mobility? In general, throughout human evolution, the capability of harvesting food by way of domesticating plants and animals has fluctuated because of the kinds of societies that have existed. Certain regions have a larger carrying capacity for a larger population density than that of band societies. Hunting and Gathering populations found it more effective to live in small bands, tribal societies progressively became more populated. In terms of mobility, tribal societies typically were content with staying within their respective territories. Bands settlement patterns are dependent on the weather conditions that they live in. (John Laing) 3. What are the two kinds of money used in the world and what kind do we use? There are two kinds of money used in the world: Special-purpose money and general-purpose money. Special-purpose money is limited, and can only be used as a medium of exchange in limited contexts. General-purpose money, which is the money we have, is a medium that can be used to purchase anything that is for sale in society that uses it. Everyone accepts it. 4. What are the functions of money? There are four functions of money. First, it allows people to pay for goods and services and then circulates and is used to pay for other goods and services. Secondly, It serves as a uniform measure of value for goods and services within a society. Third, its standard of value doesn’t radically change from one time to another; its measure of value is rather consistent. This is known as a store of value. Lastly, money can serve as a form of deferred payment, meaning it serves as a promise to pay sometime in the future with identical standard value. 5. What are the characteristics of the descent systems we have (bilateral)? What is the name of the descent groups resulting from unilineal descent rules (lineages: patrilineages and matrilineages) and from bilateral descent rules. Relatives are traced through both maternal and paternal sides of the family simultaneously. It does not result in any lineal descent grouping. For that reason, it is not too common in tribal societies. In societies in which bilateral descent exists a loosely structured group known as a kindred is developed to mobilize relatives for economic, social, or political purposes. Kindreds are relatives from both the mother’s and father’s side of a family that a person recognizes as important relations. When a person refers to all of his or her relatives, that person is designating a type of bilateral kindred. 6. What is a polygynous marriage and why do ranked societies have them? In polygynous marriage one male marries two or more females. Having multiple wives in this system increases wealth for reasons such as more people in one family unit for labor purposes. Inheriting through each wife things like land and/or livestock also increases wealth. In some ranked/tribal societies the number of children you have can also be a direct reflection of wealth and being in a polygynous union can increase that number greatly. Ranked/tribal societies have this type of union for reasons of wealth but also because of warfare decreasing the number of men in these societies leaving a much higher ratio of women to men. 7. Do men dominate women in all ranked societies? Men dominate women in most ranked societies. According to anthropologists, most societies are patriarchal where the men are more dominant than the women and take on larger and more strenuous roles. In most of these societies, the men use beliefs and ideologies to justify their dominance over women. However, it is known to these societies that women are important and that they are needed in maintaining the patriarchal society. In contrast, there are ranked societies where women are the most influential in political and economic decision making. For example, the Iroquois are a matrilineal society where the generation of women in a family live together and the men are considered outsiders even if they live in the house. The women had a large influence over the politics and economics of the society and men could only develop this power if they have strong support from their wife's relatives. 8. What is a potlatch? a Potlatch is the Chinook word for giveaway. during a potlatch local leaders would give away large amounts of goods and resources. leaders would compete with each other to see who could give away or destroy the largest amount of resources. It was believed that the more gifts that a leader got rid of, the higher status of that chief. despite the apparent wastefulness of this event, it is suggested that it served as a redistribution exchange process and as a way to ensure the production and distribution of goods in societies that lacked ruling classes. these potlatches only occurred when young people were introduced into society, or during marriage and funeral ceremonies. 9. What are sumptuary rules and can you think of one in our society? Sumptuary rules are cultural norms and practices used to differentiate the higher-status groups from the rest of society. Sumptuary rules are rare in America, but there are some examples of them. In some schools, administrators try to enforce school dress codes as it is believed that this will make students submit to authority figures more. There are also rules against smoking cigarettes in public places which prohibit one from smoking indoors, in restaurants, planes, etc. At Umass Amherst, there is no smoking allowed on campus, although many people still continue to do so. 10. Do ranked societies have the institution of slavery? Ranked societies did have institutions of slavery, but they were drastically different from the plantation slavery that developed later in America. Most slaves in chiefdoms were absorbed into kin groups through adoption or marriage and then performed the labor that most people did. One exception existed within the Northwest Coast Indians. They maintained a hereditary slave system in which children of slaves automatically became slaves themselves. These slaves were excluded from ceremonies and were even sometimes used as human sacrifices. Even in this case, slaves could be ransomed or could purchase their own freedom. 11. Is it similar to or different from slavery as it existed in the USA? How is it different? Slavery in ranked societies is very different than slavery as it existed in the United States. Usually, slaves were not owned as private property. Most slaves in ranked societies can marry or be adopted out of slavery. Because of this, most slavery in ranked societies was not inherited by the slave’s children and was not seen as a permanent status. 12.What did the art of Easter Island look like? Who makes totem poles? The statues of Easter Island appear to be human heads, elongated vertically, called Moai. These monuments date back to 1250-1500 A.D. and give an idea that an organized labor project was in place. This shows that a well developed society, possibly a chiefdom, was once there on the pacific Islands. Estimated that 800- 1000 of the statues have been discovered. 13. Is ranked society religion similar to the cosmic religions of band societies? Ranked society religions are not similar to the cosmic religions of band societies. Cosmic religions deal with nature and all components of nature. They believe in animism which is the belief that a spirit is in all substances. Ranked society religions are “literate” and are associated with particular individuals and events. Examples of ranked society religions include Judaism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism. In ranked society religions there is a ranking system within the clergy and in cosmic religions there is not a ranking system 12. What do witchcraft and sorcery help explain in ranked societies (366-367)? Witchcraft and sorcery are practiced by many ranked societies and help to explain various phenomena that occur that they cannot explain through cause- and-effect. Phenomena can range from illness, bad luck, injustice or other occurrences. For example, witchcraft was to blame for lack of game, crop failure, and economic differences among different societies. Sorcery had to do more with influencing relationships, harm and informal sanctions. For example, in one society, sorcerers were blamed for trying to banish women from the society thus threatening the group’s survival 14. How is the institution of slavery in ranked societies different? Slavery in chiefdoms, or ranked societies is the result of taking captives during organized warfare. Unlike the type of slavery in early American society, slaves in this system were not considered private property and were not said to be under the ownership of anyone. They also performed the same type of labor as most others in society and were organized into groups based on kinship. Because slaves in this system could buy their freedom or marry out of the system, their slavery was not always a permanent status. 15. Who makes totem poles and what purpose do they serve? The Native Americans of the Northwest Coast make totem poles. They were the ultimate status and religious symbols, indicating high social standing and linkages between the chiefs and the ancestral deities. Chapter Twenty | Globalization, Culture and Indigenous Societies 1. What was the Trail of Tears? In 1830 the Indian Removal Act was signed by Andrew Jackson giving the United States Government the power to claim Indian land east of the Mississippi River and relocate those people displaced to lands west of the Mississippi River. The “Trial of Tears” is one instance of the forced relocation of the Cherokee nation, taking their lands to the east and relocating them to a western territory that will later become Oklahoma. In 1838-1839, 15000 Cherokees will begin this forced march, approximately 4000 died do to exhaustion, hunger, and disease. The Cherokees named this relocation the Trail of Tears. 2. What was the population of Native Americans in North America in 1492? In 1890? In the 21 century? Most scholars believe that in 1492, there were about 10 million Native Americans in North America. By 1890, the population significantly decreased to around 250,000 people, and in the 21st century, there are a little less than 3 million. 3. What happened at Wounded Knee in 1890? -Wounded Knee was the site of a battle between Native Americans and US cavalry men that turned into a massacre in which the US cavalry men killed hundreds of women and children. 4. What are revitalization movements? Revitalization movements are resistance movements which attempt to restore some traditional aspects of native culture. The revitalization movement is a response to the dramatic consequences that affect i
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