Chapter 11: Cell to Cell Communication

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Mark Huyler

Chapter 11: Cell-to-Cell Interactions  11.1 The Cell Structure  The Structure and Function of an Extracellular Layer  11.2 How Do Adjacent Cells Connect and Communicate?  Multicellularity: intercellular connections  Cell-Cell Attachments in Multicellular Eukaryotes  Epithelium: external—epithelial layers--internal surfaces  Indirect Intercellular Attachments  Extracellular space 3 layers plants:  1. Primary cell walls  Sandwish middle Lamella: gelatinous pectins.  If they fail, surroundings fail  Animal tissues:  Integrins connect the cytoskeleton of each cell to the extracellular matrix  Tight Junctions Form a Seal between Cells  Tight junction: cell-cell attachment of specialized protein in the plasma membrane of adjacent animal cell  Desmosomes form Secure Adhesions  Commons in animal epithelial cells, and muscle cells  Intercellular Adhesions are Selective  Selective Adhesion  The Discovery of Cell-Cell Adhesion Proteins  Antibody: protein produced by immune response that binds to unique molecule type  Cadherins: attachment molecules in desmosomes  Animal cells attach to one another in a selective manner because different types of cell adhesion proteins can bind and rivet certain cells together. Calherins provide the physical basis for selective adhesion in many cells are crucial component of the desmosomes that join mature cells  Cells Communicate via Cell-Cell Gaps  1. Signals may alter with proteins are produced and which are not, by regulating genee expression  2. Signals may sctivate or deactivate particular proteins that already exist in the cell—often those involved in metabolism membrane transport secretioin and they cytoskeleton.  Gap Junctions Connect Cells via Protein Channel  Gap Junction: connect adfacent cells  Plasmodesmata Connect Cells via Membrane Channels  Plasmodesmata  Plasmomembrane separetes tissues to  1. Symplast: continuous network of cytoplasm  2. Apoplast: region outside the plasma membrane  Cells, middle lamella, and air spaces  11.3 How Do Distant Cells Communicate?
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