Lecture on September 17 th
Chapter Four: the Development of Self
Personal and social development
Nature – influences from heredity.
Nurture – influences from environment.
o Parenting styles
Authoritative, sets high expectations, highly responsive and
emphasizes rationale for rules.
Authoritarian, sets high expectations, unresponsive and
detached and emphasizes conformity to rules, child worried
about pleasing parents, militaristic.
Permissive, sets low expectations, highly responsive,
emphasizes freedom, child is immature and unmotivated at
Uninvolved, sets low expectations, unresponsive and
detached, child is disobedient, lacks goals and is
unsuccessful at school.
o Family structure
o Peer pressure
o Peer status,
Popular children – self-confident, well-liked, lots of friends.
Neglected children – likeable but quiet and may prefer to
only have one or two friends.
Average children – not ranked by peers but have friends.
Rejected children – actively disliked by peers, rejected
submissive children are withdrawn to avoid attracting
attention and rejected aggressive students may lose control
or at up if teased excessively.
Controversial children – either very disliked or very well
liked. Often the class clown, likeable kids with embarrassing
habits, bullies who instill both fear and loyalty, or rebels
who stand up to teachers and talk about.
Sensory threshold – the level of stimulation necessary to produce a
Activity level – the level of moor activity in the classroom.
Adaptability – how easily a student adapts to change.
Persistence – the amount of time students continue with an activity
despite difficulty or interruptions. Mood – students’ positive or negative disposition.
Distractibility - students’ level of concentration in the classroom.
Rhythmicity – level of predictability of students’ bodily functions.
Approach/withdrawal – students’ initial reaction to environmental
Intensity – level of energy and expressiveness in students positive or
The Development of Self
Abstraction, how one defines oneself.
Differentiation, how one is different from the others.
Self-concept and achievement
Individual’s overall view of themselves as a person
Self-handicapping, undermining one’s own chances or abilities of success
in a task.
Self-worth and achievement
The Collective self – individual’s sense of worth of the groups they belong to.
Supporting students’ collective self-development
Heritage language and sense of self
o Bilingual education influences
o Cooperative and community projects
Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory
There is a genetic, instinctual drive or quest for identity.
This propels personality development.
Development is contingent on how we handle “identity crises” or “tasks” at
various stages of life.
Psychosocial – interaction between individual’s needs and the social
Erickson’s stages of psychosocial development,
0-1 basic trust vs. basic mistrust
Trusting that basic needs will be met by others. 2-3 autonomy vs. shame, doubt
Learning to walk, talk, or use the toilet.
4-5 initiative vs. guilt
Children become more assertive.
6-12 industry vs. inferiority
13-18 identity vs. role confusion
Gender roles, politics, religion.
19-25 intimacy vs. isolation
Ability to feel non-selfish love and to develop deep, affectionate
26-40 generativity vs. stagnation
Feel the need to nurture a family.
40+ ego integrity vs. despair
Attempting to make sense of the lives they have lived. People are satisfied
with the decisions they made during their previous years.
Limitations to Erickson’s theory,
Fails to consider the role of culture.
Most adolescents fail to successfully find their identity.
Experts criticize the idea that the identity crisis precedes the intimacy
Expanded on Erickson’s ideas.
Divide the identity stages into four states that adolescents go through.
They will occupy one or more of these states, at least temporarily.
1. Identity achievement
Strong sense of commitment to life choices after careful and free
consideration of alternatives. (This commitment, though, may change
at other points in life.)
2. Identity diffusion
Little or no sense of commitment or exploration of life ch