Chapter Four: Personal, Social and Moral Development

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Department
Psychology & Brain Sciences
Course
PSYCH 305
Professor
Warren Bluemfeld
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture on September 17 th Chapter Four: the Development of Self Personal and social development Nature – influences from heredity. Nurture – influences from environment.  Family influences. o Attachment o Parenting styles  Authoritative, sets high expectations, highly responsive and emphasizes rationale for rules.  Authoritarian, sets high expectations, unresponsive and detached and emphasizes conformity to rules, child worried about pleasing parents, militaristic.  Permissive, sets low expectations, highly responsive, emphasizes freedom, child is immature and unmotivated at school.  Uninvolved, sets low expectations, unresponsive and detached, child is disobedient, lacks goals and is unsuccessful at school. o Family structure  Peer influences o Peer pressure o Friendship o Peer status,  Popular children – self-confident, well-liked, lots of friends.  Neglected children – likeable but quiet and may prefer to only have one or two friends.  Average children – not ranked by peers but have friends.  Rejected children – actively disliked by peers, rejected submissive children are withdrawn to avoid attracting attention and rejected aggressive students may lose control or at up if teased excessively.  Controversial children – either very disliked or very well liked. Often the class clown, likeable kids with embarrassing habits, bullies who instill both fear and loyalty, or rebels who stand up to teachers and talk about. Temperament diversity,  Sensory threshold – the level of stimulation necessary to produce a response.  Activity level – the level of moor activity in the classroom.  Adaptability – how easily a student adapts to change.  Persistence – the amount of time students continue with an activity despite difficulty or interruptions.  Mood – students’ positive or negative disposition.  Distractibility - students’ level of concentration in the classroom.  Rhythmicity – level of predictability of students’ bodily functions. (appetite, sleep)  Approach/withdrawal – students’ initial reaction to environmental changes.  Intensity – level of energy and expressiveness in students positive or negative responses. The Development of Self Self-concept,  Realism  Abstraction, how one defines oneself.  Differentiation, how one is different from the others.  Self-concept and achievement Self-worth,  Self-esteem  Individual’s overall view of themselves as a person  Self-handicapping, undermining one’s own chances or abilities of success in a task.  Self-worth and achievement The Collective self – individual’s sense of worth of the groups they belong to.  Ethnic identity  Supporting students’ collective self-development  Heritage language and sense of self o Bilingual education influences o Cooperative and community projects Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory There is a genetic, instinctual drive or quest for identity.  This propels personality development.  Development is contingent on how we handle “identity crises” or “tasks” at various stages of life. Psychosocial – interaction between individual’s needs and the social environment.  Developmental crisis. Erickson’s stages of psychosocial development, 0-1 basic trust vs. basic mistrust  Trusting that basic needs will be met by others. 2-3 autonomy vs. shame, doubt  Learning to walk, talk, or use the toilet. 4-5 initiative vs. guilt  Children become more assertive. 6-12 industry vs. inferiority  Developing skills. 13-18 identity vs. role confusion  Gender roles, politics, religion. 19-25 intimacy vs. isolation  Ability to feel non-selfish love and to develop deep, affectionate relationships. 26-40 generativity vs. stagnation  Feel the need to nurture a family. 40+ ego integrity vs. despair  Attempting to make sense of the lives they have lived. People are satisfied with the decisions they made during their previous years. Limitations to Erickson’s theory,  Fails to consider the role of culture.  Most adolescents fail to successfully find their identity.  Experts criticize the idea that the identity crisis precedes the intimacy crisis. James Marcia,  Expanded on Erickson’s ideas.  Divide the identity stages into four states that adolescents go through.  They will occupy one or more of these states, at least temporarily. Four stages, 1. Identity achievement  Strong sense of commitment to life choices after careful and free consideration of alternatives. (This commitment, though, may change at other points in life.) 2. Identity diffusion  Little or no sense of commitment or exploration of life ch
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