Chapter Five (Continued)

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Department
Psychology & Brain Sciences
Course
PSYCH 350
Professor
Lori Astheimer Best
Semester
Spring

Description
Developmental Psychology Chapter Five: Brain, Motor skills, and Physical Development (Continued) Growth is the increase in size of the body or its organs and development refers to changes in size and to the orderly patterns such as growth spurts and more complicated levels of functioning. Norms are quantitative measures that provide typical values and variations in height and weight for children. Length and Height: The most rapid increase in body length occurs during the fourth month of prenatal development.  The onset of rapid adolescent growth typically occurs between 10-14 for girls and 12-16 for boys The maximum rate of increase in weight takes place shortly after birth.  Newborns, after birth, lose all of their excess body fat and fluids but then make rapid gains. They double their birth weight in about five months and triple it by their first birthday Body growth generally follows a pattern of proximodistal development in which organs and systems of the body near the middle tend to develop earlier than those near the periphery. Infants tend to gain control of their arms and legs sooner than more distant areas, fingers and toes. Biological determinants of Body Growth and Development: Genetic Factors,  Genes do not control growth directly, they regulate physical development by means of neural and hormonal activity in different organs and body systems  A person’s height may be closely related to that of his mother and father of their cultural group Neural Control,  Catch-up growth is an increase in growth rate, that occurs after an illness or malnutrition is duration and severity are limited and do not occur at some critical time  Lagging-down growth is a decrease in growth rate after certain factors have accelerated the expected normal growth rate  Researchers believe that there is some so-called “growth center” in the brain called the hypothalamus which is a small region of the brain that orchestrates the genetic instructions for growth. Hormonal Influences,  Hormones are chemicals produced by various glands and secreted directly into the bloodstream. They circulate to influence cells in other locations of the body to furnish other key mechanisms for converting genetic instructions into physical development.  Human growth hormones have been distributed to a number of children Nutrition and Psychological Factors Associated with Physical Development: Nutrition and Health,  Marasmus is when children fail to grow because they lack sufficient calories – loss in weight, wrinkly skin, shrunken abdomen  Kwashiorkor is the failure to develop because the diet either contains an inadequate behavior balance of protein or includes potentially harmful toxins – lethargic behavior, wrinkled skin, wispy reddish-orange hair, swelling of the stomach  Deficiencies in vitamins A, B complex, K and calcium are all linked to growth disorders especially iron-deficiency anemia Secular Trend
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