Chapter Six: Basic Learning and Perception

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
Lori Astheimer Best

Developmental Psychology Chapter Six: Basic Learning and Perception Perception, the interpretation of sensory information from visual, auditory and other receptors. Learning, means of acquiring new skills and behaviors from experience. Habituation: The gradual decline in intensity, frequency or duration to the repeated occurring of a stimulus. It is the adaptive form of learning to ignore things that offer little new information and that have become boring. Recovery from habituation is the return of a response. Classical conditioning: Neutral event paired with a stimulus that triggers an inborn reaction can begin to elicit a response similar to the one initiated by the original stimulus.  Unconditioned stimulus that elicits a reflexlike response Unconditioned response is a response that is automatically elicited by an unconditioned stimulus  Conditioned stimulus involves a neutral stimulus that begins to elicit a response stimulus to the unconditioned stimulus with which it has been paired  Conditioned response is a learned response that is exhibited to a previously neutral stimulus as a result of pairing the conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus Operant conditioning: The frequency of spontaneous, sometimes novel behaviors change as a result of positive and negative consequences.  Behaviors tend to increase when followed by rewards (positive reinforcement) or the removal of aversive events (negative reinforcement) and to decrease when followed by the loss of rewards (negative punishment) or an aversive outcome (positive punishment)  When a behavior occurs it causes a stimulus event that either increases the rate of response (reinforcement) or decreases it (punishment) Observational learning: Individuals often learn and reproduce behaviors important to the community by observing the activities of others and others may provide further behaviors and guidance that can be imitated. Imitation is viewed as having an important social- communicative function and signals of the earliest games babies play to learn about others in their surroundings. Deferred imitation is the ability to imitate a sequence of actions well after some activity has been demonstrated. Other forms of learning: Implicit learning is learning about complex events without awareness. Responsible for acquiring substantial knowledge about language, categories and procedural routines that accompany many motor behaviors  Underlies much of perceptual learning  Statistical learning emphasizes that associations are formed because some event co-occur in a statistically predictable order Sensory and Perceptual Capacities: Sensation refers to the basic units of information recorded by a sensory receptor and the brain. Perception refers to the process of organizing and interpreting sensations. Perceptual development is a constructive process, one of imposing sense and order on the multisensory external world. Measuring infant sensory and perceptual capacities: Attention is the alertness or arousal focused on a specific aspect of the environment. When infants display attentional preferences by looking longer at one thing than at another they are communicating that they perceive differences between visual arrays.  Preferential behaviors: One to six month olds attended to disks colored with bulls-eyes, stripes, newsprint or face like figures far longer than to solid colored circles Visions and visual perception: Visuomotor skills, lens focuses visual images onto the retina (the back of the eye that houses..) rods which are responsive to light and cones which are sensitive to different wavelengths of
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