Chapter Six (Continued)

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
Lori Astheimer Best

Developmental Psychology Chapter Six (Continued) Audition and auditory perception: Brain wave patterns, heart rate change and activity level observed on ultrasound scans reveal responses to vibrio acoustic stimulation. Newborns prefer to listen to sounds they could hear before birth. They also prefer to listen to the sound of the mother's voice. Hearing: By six months, babies are able to detect and discriminate numerous features of sound such as frequency and intensity almost as well as adults do. Sound localization: The ability to locate a sound in space by turning their heads or eyes in the direction of the sound. Patterns of sound: Two and three month olds can recognize changes in tempo and intervals between brief bursts of sound that denote simple rhythmic change. At six months to one year they begin to distinguish more between more complex rhythms and patterns of sounds. Infants prefer to listen to a song or lullaby directed by an adult to another infant over the same song or lullaby by the adult singing alone and a lower pitched lullaby over a higher pitched lullaby. Speech: The smallest unit of sound that affects the meaning of a word is called a phenome. They are complicated bursts of acoustic energy. Some believe that babies are born with a "speech module" an innate capacity to detect and process the subtle and complicated sounds that make up human language. Another theory says that phenome discriminate hinges on broader, more general auditory capacities, capacities not limited to processing speech sounds of even necessarily unique to humans but that infants are able to exploit quite early in development. Categorical perception, the classification of sounds as the same even when they differ on some continuous physical dimension except when on opposite sides of a critical juncture. Smell, taste, touch and sensitivity to pain: Smell, facial expression, changed in rate of respiration, blood flow in the brain and head turning are just a few of the responses indicating that newborns detect odors. Humans may inherit some family olfactory signature about which
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