Chapter Eight: Continued
Infants rely on the positions of their own bodies in space to locate objects. They
seek to have some way of representing how far apart objects are from each other,
or how far apart an object is from a boundary in terms of metric length.
geometric cues, such as the shape of a room, can also help young children
to orient themselves in space.
overall, babies have several ways to locate objects in space, referencing
their own bodies, using landmarks, and employing distance and geometric
cues. These skills improve when the infant begins to crawl and move about
Allows the individual to focused on a selected aspect of the environment, often in
preparation for learning or problem solving.
first step in cognitive processing and is viewed as a critical phase
As the child ages, their attention span increases. This is because of the
maturation of the central nervous system, also increasing complexity of the
Children increasingly deploy their attention effectively, such as when they are
comparing two stimuli.
brain scans show that areas of the prefrontal cortex that are involved in
arousal and attention show rapid improvements in organization and
efficiency between four and seven months of age.
ADHD - pattern of impulsively, high levels of motor activity, and attention
poor school achievement.
behavior management problems. poor peer relationships.
Think that children with ADHD have problems with high order executive control
processes, especially those that help children to inhibit their tendencies to
respond. Biologically, those with ADHD show abnormal brain wave activity,
slower blood flow and lower glucose metabolism in the prefrontal regions of the
brain that are associated with regulating attention and motor activity. Also, the
prefrontal region may be smaller in these children.
Recognition memory, requires participants to indicate somehow that they have
experienced a picture, word, or other stimulus before.
"Have you encountered this item on previous trials of this experiment?"
Recall memory, participants must reproduce previously presented stimuli.
"Can you show me how we fed the fish before?"
Episodic memory, memory for events that occurred at a specific time and place in
"What did you do on your first day of school?"
Semantic memory, consists of general concepts or facts that are stored without
reference to a specific previous event.
"How many inches are in a foot?"
Explicit memory, refers to the recollection of a past event or experience. This is a
Hearing a story being read or viewing a picture of a female face in a
Implicit memory, refers to non conscious recollections of how to do something
behaviorally. The child may have little awareness of all of the small
improvements that have taken place in these skills over time. learning to use a spoon to eat cereal or among other children, learning to
ride a bike.
Studying memory in infants:
Two techniques are used; habituation and operant conditioning.
habituation was used by Fagan and demonstrated that children are
capable of recognizing faces and remembering them when compared to
operant conditioning was utilized by Rovee-Collier, when a ribbon is tied
to a mobile in the child's crib the infant figures out that he can kick the
ribbon to move it. To prove that infants have memory, the mobile is
removed from the crib and two weeks later put back in. Over this period,
once the mobile is put back in the crib the infant remembers that they are
able to move the ribbon by kicking, proving their memory.
Elicited imitation, involves older infants and preschoolers repeating a sequence
of actions demonstrated by experimenters.
Infant memory capabilities:
Newborns can retain information for a twenty-four hour period. However, early
memories are easily disrupted by contextual aspects.
Memory in older children:
Memory span, the number of stimulus items that can be recalled after a brief
interval of time.
Children's tendency to employ memory strategies, activities to enhance the
encoding and retrieval