Chapter Nine: Social Cognition (Continued)
Skilled collaborators and guided participation:
The establishment of intersubjectivity is important. This is the mutual attention
and shared communications that take place between expert and behavior.
Scaffolding and working with assistants/parents/tutors are key. Children who
initially worked with their parents on any given task, employed more efficient
planning strategies than children who had worked with peers. When working
with adults, children are generally more actively involved in the cognitive task at
hand, whereas they tend to be more passive observers when their tutor is another
Guided participation is the process by which a skilled collaborator transfers
knowledge to a learner by providing support and gradually withdrawing it.
Memory in a social context:
Our recollections of past events and experiences seem to be malleable and are
influenced by our current state of knowledge and by the kinds of emphases of
values that are promoted by parents, teachers, and others in our social
environments. Memory is one’s retelling of the past colored or guided by social
conventions or other influences that have been absorbed over time.
Organized schemas of knowledge that individuals possess about commonly
Example: a three or four year old may have a good schematic
representation for dinner time – cooking the food, setting the table,
sitting down to eat.
Most people are unable to recount memories for experiences prior to three years
of age. This is known as infantile amnesia.
Autobiographical memories are memories of events that have occurred in one’s
own life. These can provide some important to clues as to why we forget our
earlier infant memories.
What factors are responsible for this developmental turning point?
1) Piaget said that children under age two represent events in a qualitatively
different form than other children. Earlier memories seem to be encoded
in a format that cannot be translated into verbal terms later on.
2) Before children can talk about past events in their lives, they need to have
a reasonable understanding of the self as a psychological entity. The
development of the self becomes apparent between the first and second years of life. The realization of the physical self lays the foundation for the
emergence of autobio