Chapter Nine: Social Cognition (Continued)

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
Lori Astheimer Best

Developmental Psychology Chapter Nine: Social Cognition (Continued) Skilled collaborators and guided participation: The establishment of intersubjectivity is important. This is the mutual attention and shared communications that take place between expert and behavior. Scaffolding and working with assistants/parents/tutors are key. Children who initially worked with their parents on any given task, employed more efficient planning strategies than children who had worked with peers. When working with adults, children are generally more actively involved in the cognitive task at hand, whereas they tend to be more passive observers when their tutor is another child. Guided participation is the process by which a skilled collaborator transfers knowledge to a learner by providing support and gradually withdrawing it. Memory in a social context: Our recollections of past events and experiences seem to be malleable and are influenced by our current state of knowledge and by the kinds of emphases of values that are promoted by parents, teachers, and others in our social environments. Memory is one’s retelling of the past colored or guided by social conventions or other influences that have been absorbed over time. Scripts, Organized schemas of knowledge that individuals possess about commonly encountered events.  Example: a three or four year old may have a good schematic representation for dinner time – cooking the food, setting the table, sitting down to eat. Autobiographical memory, Most people are unable to recount memories for experiences prior to three years of age. This is known as infantile amnesia. Autobiographical memories are memories of events that have occurred in one’s own life. These can provide some important to clues as to why we forget our earlier infant memories. What factors are responsible for this developmental turning point? 1) Piaget said that children under age two represent events in a qualitatively different form than other children. Earlier memories seem to be encoded in a format that cannot be translated into verbal terms later on. 2) Before children can talk about past events in their lives, they need to have a reasonable understanding of the self as a psychological entity. The development of the self becomes apparent between the first and second years of life. The realization of the physical self lays the foundation for the emergence of autobio
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