Chapter Eleven: Continued
Over time, children generally become better at being able to control their own
Emotion regulation in infancy and early childhood:
Infants rely on caregivers to regulate their own emotions.
Young babies may make some attempts to regulate their emotions by actions
such as distraction, sucking on a pacifier, or looking away from something when
it makes them angry.
Researchers have found that children with the inability to regulate negative
emotions are more likely to develop conduct problems.
overall, girls tend to express fewer negative emotions.
Other research shows that parental warmth helps children's emotion regulation
which, in turn, results in fewer behavior problems as rated by parents and
parents who promote environments in which children verbalized their
feelings are less likely to develop behavioral problems as compared to
parents who display more negative emotions and promote more of an
Emotion regulation in adolescents:
Internalizing, an emotional style that is inner-directed and results in emotions
such as guilt or sadness.
Externalizing, pertains to outward-directed behavioral manifestations which are
typically driven by anger.
example: temper tantrums and aggression.
For some, intense and extreme negative emotional states develop into
depression, a psychological disorder characterized by dejected mood for lengthy
periods of time, eating and sleeping problems, low self-esteem, loss of energy and
other symptoms. Variations in emotional development:
Infants and children vary in temperament; a style of behavioral functioning that
encompasses the intensity of expression of moods, distractibility, adaptability,
Patterns of temperament,
Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas offer one conceptualization of temperament.
the easy child generally has positive moods, regular body function, a low
to moderate energy level in repossess, and a positive approach to new
situations. Establishes regular feeding and sleeping schedules right from
early infancy and adapts quickly to new routines, people, and places.
the difficult child is often in a negative mood, has irregular body functions,
shows high-intensity reactions, withdraws from new stimuli, and is slow to
adapt to new situations. The difficult child sleeps and eats on an
unpredictable schedule, cries a good deal, and has trouble adjusting to new
the slow-to-warm-up child is somewhat negati