Chapter Two: The Methods of Social Psychology
Hindsight bias is people’s tendency to be overconfident about whether they could
have predicted a given outcome.
Hypothesis is a prediction about what will happen under particular
Theory is a body of related prepositions intended to describe something about the
Balance theory is a theory that people like to have constant thoughts and
behaviors and will do substantial mental work to achieve cognitive consistency.
Archival research is based on statistic and findings from newspapers, sports
loggings and databases.
Surveys simply ask people questions about their opinions to gain information
Imperative that these involve a random sample of participants
A convenience sample is not random and may be biased in some ways. May also
include too many of some kinds of people and too few of others.
Correlational research does not involve random assignments to different
situations and that psychologists conduct just to see whether there is a
relationship between variables.
Does not prove a causal relationship because of self-selection, a problem
that arises when the participant, rather than the investigator, selects his or
her level on each variable
Experimental research randomly assigns people to different conditions and
enables researchers to make strong inferences about how these different
conditions affect people’s behaviors.
Involves an independent variable/dependent variable/random assignment
and a control condition
Reverse causation occurs when one variable that is assumed to cause the