Chapter Two: The Methods of Social Psychology

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
John Bickford

Social Psychology Chapter Two: The Methods of Social Psychology Hindsight bias is people’s tendency to be overconfident about whether they could have predicted a given outcome. Hypothesis is a prediction about what will happen under particular circumstances. Theory is a body of related prepositions intended to describe something about the world. Balance theory is a theory that people like to have constant thoughts and behaviors and will do substantial mental work to achieve cognitive consistency. Archival research is based on statistic and findings from newspapers, sports loggings and databases. Surveys simply ask people questions about their opinions to gain information  Imperative that these involve a random sample of participants A convenience sample is not random and may be biased in some ways. May also include too many of some kinds of people and too few of others. Correlational research does not involve random assignments to different situations and that psychologists conduct just to see whether there is a relationship between variables.  Does not prove a causal relationship because of self-selection, a problem that arises when the participant, rather than the investigator, selects his or her level on each variable Experimental research randomly assigns people to different conditions and enables researchers to make strong inferences about how these different conditions affect people’s behaviors.  Involves an independent variable/dependent variable/random assignment and a control condition  Reverse causation occurs when one variable that is assumed to cause the
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