Chapter Four: Social Cognition; Thinking About People and Situations

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Psychology & Brain Sciences
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John Bickford

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Social Psychology Chapter Four: Social Cognition; Thinking About People and Situations Social cognition, interprets the past, understands the present and predicts the future. All how people think and arrive at judgments  Relies entirely on information  A great deal of what we conclude about people based on their faces is determined almost instantaneously Judgments Positive-negative dimensions  Trustworthy? Aggressive? Power dimensions  Confident? Dominant? People’s snap judgments about facial appearance may be truthful but not entirely so. Firsthand information is more accurate since it has not been filtered by others, but can also be misguiding since sometimes we perceive things incorrectly. Pluralistic ignorance arises whenever people act in ways that conflict with their private beliefs because of a concern for their social consequences.  Example: Not asking questions in class about hard material since you assume that everyone else understands but you Secondhand information comes from secondhand sources, there is no personal knowledge on the subject. Distortion is prevalent in mass media for entertainment purposes and in exaggerations to make things more interesting. In marketing, altering when an object is presented and how it is presented an be pivotal: Primacy effect: when information shown first it has the most influence Recency effect: when information shown last has the most influence Framing effect: influence on judgment resulting from the way information is processed, such as the order of presentation or how it is worded Spin framing: varies the content, not just the order, of what is presented. Used in polls, political races, etc. Construal level theory is the temporal perspective from which people view events has important and predictable implications on how they construe them. Confirmation bias, people more reliably, readily an vigorously seek out information that would support their preposition rather than information that could be contradictory.  Can be dangerous since w
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