Chapter Four: Social Cognition; Thinking About People and Situations
Social cognition, interprets the past, understands the present and predicts the
future. All how people think and arrive at judgments
Relies entirely on information
A great deal of what we conclude about people based on their faces is
determined almost instantaneously
Positive-negative dimensions Trustworthy? Aggressive?
Power dimensions Confident? Dominant?
People’s snap judgments about facial appearance may be truthful but not entirely
Firsthand information is more accurate since it has not been filtered by others,
but can also be misguiding since sometimes we perceive things incorrectly.
Pluralistic ignorance arises whenever people act in ways that conflict with their
private beliefs because of a concern for their social consequences.
Example: Not asking questions in class about hard material since you
assume that everyone else understands but you
Secondhand information comes from secondhand sources, there is no personal
knowledge on the subject. Distortion is prevalent in mass media for
entertainment purposes and in exaggerations to make things more interesting.
In marketing, altering when an object is presented and how it is presented an be
Primacy effect: when information shown first it has the most influence
Recency effect: when information shown last has the most influence
Framing effect: influence on judgment resulting from the way information is
processed, such as the order of presentation or how it is worded
Spin framing: varies the content, not just the order, of what is presented. Used in
polls, political races, etc.
Construal level theory is the temporal perspective from which people view events
has important and predictable implications on how they construe them.
Confirmation bias, people more reliably, readily an vigorously seek out
information that would support their preposition rather than information that
could be contradictory.
Can be dangerous since w