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Chapter 12

Chapter 12: Development

4 Pages

Psychology & Brain Sciences
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Module Thirty-Five:
Nature and Nurture: The Enduring Developmental Issue
Module Thirty-Six:
Prenatal Development: Conception to Birth
Module Thirty-Seven:
Infancy and Childhood

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Chapter 12: Development Module Thirty-Five: Nature and Nurture: The Enduring Developmental Issue • developmental psychology → branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life • nature­nurture issue → issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior • identical twins → twins who are genetically identical • cross­sectional research → research method that compares people of different ages at the same point in time •longitudinal research → research method that investigates behavior as participants age → long term • sequential research → research method that combines cross­sectional and longitudinal research by considering a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time Module Thirty-Six: Prenatal Development: Conception to Birth • chromosomes → rod­shaped structures that contain all basic heredity information • genes → parts of the chromosomes through which genetic information is transmitted • zygote → new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm • embryo → developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs • fetus → developing individual from eight weeks after conception until birth • age of viability → point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely • teratogens → environmental agents such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that produce a birth defect Module Thirty-Seven: Infancy and Childhood • neonate → a newborn child • reflexes → unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli • habituation → decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus • attachment → positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual • authoritarian parents → parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children • permissive parents → parents who give their children relaxed or inconsistent direction and, although they are warm, require little of them • authoritative parents → parents who are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them • uninvolved parents → parents who show little interest in their children and are emotionally detached • psychosocial development → development of individuals’ interactions and understanding of each other and of their knowledge and understanding of themselves as members of society • trust­versus­mistrust stage → (Erikson) first stage of psychosocial development, occurring from birth to age 1 ½ years, during which time infants develop feelings of trust or lack of trust • autonomy­versus­shame­and­doubt stage → (Erikson) toddlers (ages 1 ½ to 3 years) develop independence
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