BIOL 111 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Proteome, Francis Crick, Insulin

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4 Feb 2017
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Five Ways of thinking about life that will still hold true decades from now:
1. Organization
2. Information
3. Energy and Matter
4. Interactions
5. Evolution
Biological organization
1. Biosphere: consists of all life on earth and all the places where life exists
2. Ecosystems: All living things in a particular area (forest ,desert) along with all the nonliving things they react with (water, soil)
3. Communities: array of organisms inhibiting an ecosystem
4. Population: All the individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specific area
5. Organisms: Individual living things
6. Organs: Body part made of multiple tissues and has specific functions in the body
7. Tissues: Group of cells that work together performing a specialized function
8. Cells: life's fundamental unit and structure of function
9. Organelles: various functional components present in cells
10. Molecules: chemical structure composed of two or more atoms
Reductionism: Zooming in through the levels of biological hierarchy, the method reduces complex systems to simpler components
that are more manageable to study
James Watson and Francis Crick studied the molecular structure of DNA that had been extracted from cells
EMERGENT PROPERTIES:
Beginning at molecular level and zooming out (opposite of figure 1.3)
Another approach of studying biology different from reductionism
Arrangement and complexity of parts as they increase
Biologists today complement reductionism with systems biology
Systems biology: the exploration of a biological system by analyzing the interactions among its parts
Anything can be a system, and then biologists question its interactions
Ex: "How do networks of molecular interactions in our bodies generate one 24 hour cycle of wakefulness and sleep?
At each level of biological hierarchy we find a correlation of structure and function
Ex: hummingbirds anatomy allows the wings to rotate at the shoulder so the birds can fly
The Cell: An organism's basic unit of structure and function:
The cell is the smallest unit of organization that can perform all the activities required for life
The cell theory: All living organisms are made up of cells which are the basic unit of life
Eurkaryotic Cells:
Plants and animals
Contain membrane-enclosed organelles
Prokaryotic Cells:
Bacteria
Lacks a nucleus or other membrane enclosed organelles
Usually smaller than Eukaryotic cells
Lifes processes involve expression and transmission of genetic material:
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Chromosomes contain genetic material in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
get ready to divide
Before a cell divides DNA is replicated
Genes: each section of DNA of the chromosomes
Gene expression: entire process by which the information in a gene directs the manufacture of a product
Deoxyribonucleic Acid: The Genetic Material
Before a cell divides, the DNA is first replicated and each of the two cellular offspring inherits a complete set of chromosomes,
identical to that parent cell
Each Chromosome contains one very long DNA molecule with hundreds or thousands of genes
Genes: Section of the DNA of the chromosome, they are the units of inheritance
Molecular structure of DNA accounts for its ability to store information (two long strands arranged in a double helix)
Each strand is made up of four kinds of chemical building blocks called nucleotides (A T C and G) Specific sequences of these
nucleotides encode the information in genes
The way DNA decodes information is similar to how we arrange the letters of the alphabet into words
Protein encoding genes control protein production indirectly using RNA
Sequences of Nucleotides along a gene are transcribed into mRNA, which is translated into a linked series of protein building
blocks called amino acids
Amino acid chain forms a specific protein with a unique shape and function
Gene Expression: The entire process by which the information in a gene directs the manufacture of a cellular product
Genomics: A Large-Scale analysis of DNA sequences
Genome: Entire "library" of genetic instructions an organism inherits
Pace that researchers are able to determine the sequence of a genome has accelerated at an astounding rate since the 1990s
Genomics: Researchers study whole sets of genes instead of a single gene in organisms
Proteomics: Study of proteins and their properties (Entire set of proteins: proteome)
o Three Important Research developments have made Genomics and proteomics possible
o "high throughput technology": tools that can analyze many biological samples very rapidly
o Bioinformatics: the use of computational tools to store, organize, and analyze the huge volume of data that results
from high throughput methods
o Formation of interdisciplinary research teams: groups of diverse specialists; computer scientists, mathematicians,
engineers, chemists, physicists, biologists
Life Requires the Transfer and Transformation of Energy and Matter
Moving, growing, reproducing all require work, and work requires energy
The input of energy is mostly from the sun, and the transfer of energy make life possible
When a plants leaves absorb sunlight, molecules within leaves convert the energy of sunlight to chemical energy of food (sugar) ~
photosynthesis
The chemical energy is passed from producers to consumers
Producers: Photosynthetic organisms
Consumers: Organisms that feed on other organisms or their remains
Energy is lost through heat
Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, Entering as light, and exiting as heat
Chemicals cycle w/in the ecosystem, they are used and recycled
Chemicals absorbed in plant through air, and then passed to organism that eats plant, eventually these organisms are returned to
environment by decomposers, chemicals are now able to be taken up by plants again completing the cycle
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