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University of Minnesota Twin Cities
BIOL 1010
Michelle Price

Chapter 1 Human Biology Science and SocietyCurrent Issue Mandatory Childhood VaccinationsAll 50 states of America require some school immunization permit exemptions under certain conditions toostoNew Jersey became 1 state to require children who attend liscenced day carepreschool programs to get flu shotoNow NJ requires immunizations vaccinations for 13 vaccinepreventable communicable diseases mostout of all statesChildhood Vaccinations Save LivesoChildhood vaccines introduced since 1950s reduced diseasesdeath from measles mumps whooping cough pertussis polio diphtheria1940s and 50s before vaccines against these diseases available 5 diseases caused total estimated 900000 cases of disease7700 deathsyearBy 2004 only 27 deaths total 996 reduction measles cases dropped from 500000year before measles vaccine available 62 casesyear recentlyoBut recentlyinmeasleswhooping cough both highly sensitive to vaccination rates casesst1 10 months of 201011The characteristics of lifeWhat is life Bioligists have some criteria to distinguish lifeLiving things have different molecular composition than nonliving thingsoAll living and nonliving things made of same set of elements but living things have only few elements in abundanceoCan make molecules proteins carbohydrates lipids and nucleic acids in unique ways that nonliving things cant makeoThese moleculesin all living organisms and often persist in remains of dead organismsoVariations of these molecules in different life forms diversity of lifeLiving things require energy and raw materialsoNeed energy to transform molecules from one form anotheroMetabolism physicalchemical processes involved in transforming energymolecules to maintain lifeoAll living things take in and metabolize raw materials and energy from environment turn into molecules and energy they need to surviveex plants use sun energy and soil water and air chemicalsAnimals and other life forms get energy and raw materials from water air plants or other animalsLiving things are composed of cellsocell smallest unit that shows characteristics of life all living things have at least 1oAll cells originate only from existing cells
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