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BIOL 1010
Michelle Price

Chapter 3 Book NotesStructure and Function of CellsCell doctrine has 3 basic principleso1 All living things are composed of cells and cell productso2 A single cell is the smallest unit that exhibits all the characteristics of lifeo3 All cells come only from preexisting cellsCell products materials composed of dead cells ex outer layer of skin and substances resulting from cellular activity ex hard crystalline elements of boneAll cells derived from earlier cells back to our first cell fertilized egg which came from sperm and egg which alsocells31 Cells are classified according to their internal organizationPlasma membrane outer membrane that surrounds all cells encloses material inside cell mostly water but also has ions enzymes and other cell structuresoAll living cellseither prokaryotes or eukaryotes depending on their internal organizationEukaryotes have a nucleus cytoplasm and organellesoEukaryotes includes human cells almost all have 3 basic componentso1 Plasma membrane outer covering of cello2 Nucleus core membranebound compartment that houses cells genetic material and functions as its info center most eukaryotic cells have 1 but can be exceptionso3 Cytoplasm cell material includes everything inside cell except nucleus made of soft gellike fluid cytosol cell solutioncontains organelles little organs variety of microscopic structures which have specialized functions like digesting nutrients or packaging cellular productsProkaryotes lack a nucleus and organellesoProkaryotes bacteria have plasma membrane thats surrounded by rigid cell wallogenetic material concentrated in particular region but not specifically enclosed win membranebound nucleusolack almost all organelles in eukaryotes but still living organisms32 Cell structure reflects cell functionEukaryotic cells are very similar to each other regardless of which organism they come from bc all cells carry out certain activities to maintain life strong link btwn structure and functionAll cells need to gather raw materials excrete wastes make macromolecules molecules of life and grow and reproduce very complex rivals citycountryoOuter structure that defines borderoinfrastructure for supportoinformation centeromanufacturing facilitiesorefining packaging and shipping centersotransportation systems for supplying raw materials and energyostockpiles of energyomechanisms for recyclingremoving toxic wasteosophisticated defense mechanisms to combat invadersCells have different structures bc have different functions eachspecializedoMuscle cells have lot of mitochondria make energy for muscle contractionoNerve cellslong and thin longest of them carry impulses from toes to spinal cordoCells that line kidney tubulescube shaped tightly bound together transport water and other moleculesCells w same functionvery similar btwn speciesoex human nerve cellmore similar to cockroach nerve cell than human liver cellonot too much size difference either just that larger organisms have more of themCells remain small to stay efficientoMost cellsvery small in 1 dimensions very few large cellsowhy reasonstotal metabolic activities of cell proportional to V cytoplasm whichits size cell needs raw materials in proportion to size to support its activities also needs to get rid of wastesAll raw materials energy and waste must cross plasma membrane to enterleave cellThe larger they get V more than surface areaoThe larger cell gets likely growthmetabolism limited by ability to supply self across plasma membrane smaller cell can more effectively obtain raw materialsget rid of wasteomicrovilli microscopic projections of plasma membrane increase surface area relative to V common in cells that transport substances intoout of body like cells in digestive tract and kidney tubulesVisualizing cells with microscopesoThe light microscope LMcommon microscopesmall enough to sit on lab benchuses visible light and different glass lenses to magnify samplelight doesnt transmit well through very densethick samples need staining beforehand to seegood for low magnificationsonly microscope that can be used on living samplesoThe transmission electron microscope TMbombards thin object w electrons some transmitted through sample visual imageelectrons behave like light waves but wavelengthshorter than visible light more magnified
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