BIOL 2002 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Organic Chemistry, Glycosidic Bond, Chemical Polarity

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5 Feb 2017

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Science of carbon containing molecules = organic chemistry
- C can form 4 covalent bonds with other atoms because it has 4 valence electrons
- Most commonly forms bonds with C,H,O,N,S
- C-C and C-H bonds are nonpolar -called hydrocarbons, hydrophobic and not soluble in
- Most organic molecules and macromolecules contain functional groups - atoms with
characteristic chemical structures and properties
- C containing molecules may exist in isomers - molecules with identical chemical
formulas but different structures and characteristics
- Structural isomers contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationships
- Stereoisomers have identical bonding relationships but different spatial positioning of
their atoms
- Cis-trans isomers and enantiomers
- Monomers are the pieces that make up polymers; formed by condensation reactions
which produce the larger molecule and a water
- Also called a dehydration reaction
- Carbohydrates - general structure is Cn(H2O)n
- Simple carbs break down to make ATP (Source of energy)
- Larger carbs store energy, play structural role
- Lipids - nonpolar molecules that are made of C H and some O; play a key part in
membranes, function in hormones, energy storage, insulators
- Proteins - polypeptide with a linear sequence of amino acids; key roles in cell structure
and have many cellular functions
- Nucleic acids - linear sequence of nucleotides, stores genetic information in genes
- Simplest sugars are monomers- monosaccharides
- They are joined together by dehydration to form polysaccharides
- Forms a glycosidic bond
- Starch in plants and glycogen in animal cells are examples of polysaccharides
- High degree of branching in glycogen makes it soluble in animal tissue
- Starch has small degree of branching and is insoluble
- Both are efficient for storing energy
- Cellulose has no branching and is used for structure in plants
- Chitin = tough structural polysaccharide found in external skeletons
- Glycosaminoglycans = large polysaccharides that provide structure in animals
- Lipids are hydrophobic composed mainly of H and C and some O
- Nonpolar and not soluble in water
- Triglycerides = glycerol and 3 fatty acids
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