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CHEM 2121 (5)
Chapter 3

Chapter3BookNotes.docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 2121
Professor
Nicholas Frost

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Chapter 3 Book NotesExperimental Error31 Significant FiguresSignificant figures mindigits needed to write given value in scientific notation wo loss of precisionousually digits written in zerosend countozeros beforedont count as sig figsozeros after whole not decimalambiguous use scientific notation to tell how many sig figsRules for 0s theysignificant ifo1 in middle of o2end ofto right of decimal ptLast sig fig has uncertainty needs to have at least someothe rest of the digitscertainthWhen reading scale of any apparatus estimate to nearest 10 of division interpolateAny measured quantity has uncertainty but integerscounting sexact32 Significant Figures in ArithmeticOnly round final answers to prevent accumulating rounding errorsAddition and Subtraction same exponent align allw respect to decimal pt round answers according todecimal places inw fewest decimal placesoIf both s have same sig figs ans has same decimal places as the 2 s before could have moreless sig figs in answer than in original soIf 2 s have differentsig figs ans can have as many decimal places as originalw leastdecimal placesround up if next digitmore than half way to next higher digit down if less than halfwayoIf need to round and digits afterexactly halfway round to nearest even digit bc want to avoid systematically increasingdecreasing results bc of successive roundoff errors now half roundoffsup and half downex 4355436 for 3 sig figsex 1425 142ex 142501 143 bc 501more than halfwayoIf doing scientific notation express all s w same exponent on the 10Multiplication and DivisionoAns can havesig figs in originalw fewest sig figsoExponents on 10 dont matterstosee p 59can keep an extra digit if 1 digit of ans1 Logarithms and AntilogarithmsaoLogarithm if n10 then lognaanswertologoAntilogarithm 10 in above case noCharacteristic integer part of logarithm
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