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University of Minnesota Twin Cities
CHEM 2121
Nicholas Frost

Chapter 1 Book NotesChemical Measurementsex Neurotransmitter measurmentsneed units of measurements covering many orders of magnitudes powers of 10 in range11 SI UnitsSI units of measurement name from French Systeme International dUnites used by scientists all around worldoFundamentalbase units all others derived from theseolength meter m mass kilogram kg time second s temperature Kelvin K amt substance moles mol electric current amperes Asee table 11 p 14oforce newtons Npressure pascals Pa energy joules Jobut each of above can also be expressed in terms of length time and massUsing Prefixes as MultipliersoUse prefixes from table 13 rather than exponential notationoex Ozone and its depletion3oUsually increment by 3 orders of magnitude 10 for prefixes we actually useIf a certain order of magnitude is btwn 2 increments use the lower order of magnitude oneoOrdinate yaxis of a graph Abscissa xaxisoKeep track of units and cancel when possibleso then can check if answer is right if units are rightConverting Between Unitsosee important conversion factors table 14 p 15 for nonSI units12 Chemical ConcentrationsSolution homogeneous mixture of 2 substancesosolute minor species in solnosolvent major species in solnoaqueous soln solventwater mostly deal with these hereoConcentration how much solute contained in given volumemass of solnsolventMolarity and Molalityomole mol Avogadrosof particles atoms ions molecules etcoMolarity Mmol substanceliter solnLiter L V of cube that10 cm on each edge33310 cm01m 1 L01 m10 msubstanceconcentration of substance expressed usually as molarityoAtomic massgrams containing Avogadrosatoms
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