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Materials Science
MATS 3011
Bharat Jalan

Chapter 2 Book NotesAtomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding21 IntroductionGeometric atomic arrangements and interactions among constituent atomsmolecules determines some solid material propertiesImportant concepts atomic structure electron configurations in atoms and periodic table primarysecondary interatomic bonds that hold atoms that compose solidAtomic Structure22 Fundamental ConceptsAtoms have nucleus w protons and neutrons whichencircled by moving electrons19oElectrons and protonselectrically charged 160210 Cfor protonsfor electronsoNeutronselectrically neutral27oProtons and neutrons massapprox same 16710 kg31oElectron mass 91110Atomic number Zprotons used to characterize each chemical elementofor electrically neutralcomplete atom atomicelectronsofrom 1 hydrogen to 92 uranium for naturally occurring elementsAtomic mass A sum of protons and neutrons masses win nucleuso protons are always same butneutrons can be different isotopesAtomic weight weighted avg of atomic masses of atoms naturally occurring isotopesAtomic mass unit amu used to compute atomic weighto1 amu112 atomic mass of most common isotope of C carbon 12 A1200000oHere protons and neutrons masses slightly greater than unity AZNCan use atomic mass for amu per atom or mass per mole23omole 602210 Avogadrosatomsmolecules of somethingo1 amuatomor molecule1 gmol23 Electrons in AtomsAtomic ModelsoQuantum mechanics science of atomic and subatomic entitiesclassical mechanics dont explain many phenomena of electrons in solidsoBohr atomic model electrons assumed to revolve around atomic nucleus in discrete orbitalsposition of any particular electron moreless defined in terms of its orbitaloEnergy of electronsquantized electrons can only have specific values of energyelectrons can change energy but need to make quantum jump to allowed higher energy absorb energy or lower energy emit energyallowed energies of electronsenergy levelsstates
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