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Chapter 34

BIOL 150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 34: Adventitiousness, Plasmodesma, Cellulose

Course Code
BIOL 150
Jeffrey Carmichael

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Chapter 34
Root system (anchors plant and takes in water and nutrients from the soil)
Shoot system (harvests light and CO2 from atmosphere to produce sugars)
Plant body ( consists of root and shoot systems)
*vascular tissue connects and shoot systems*
Vascular tissues
Water and nutrients are transported from roots to shoots: sugar can be transported in
both directions
Plant body is more efficient as an absorption - and - synthesis machine when it has large surface
area relative to its volume
Lateral roots
Root diversity can be analyzed on 3 levels:
Morphological diversity among species
Phenotypic plasticity, or change in structure of an individual's root system in response to
Modified roots that are specialized for unusual functions
Herbaceous (seed plants that lack tissue)
Perennial (live for many years)
Phenotypic plasticity (form is changeable, depending on environmental conditions)
Adventitious (develop from an unusual source, the shoot system instead of the root
Stems (vertical aboveground structures)
Nodes (where leaves are attached)
Internodes (segments between nodes)
Leaf (an appendage that projects from stem laterally)
*function as photosynthetic organs*
Axillary (or lateral) buds (from above site of leaf attachment)
Branch (lateral extension of shoot system)
Apical bud (where growth occurs that extends length of stem/branch)
Variation in size and shape of shout systems is important:
Allows plants of different species to harvest light at different locations and thus
minimize competition
Allows plants to thrive in wide array of habitats
Stolons (modified stems that grow horizontally along soil surface, producing
adventitious roots and leaves at each node)
Rhizomes (stems that grow horizontally instead of vertically)
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Tubers (underground, swollen rhizomes that function as carbohydrate-storage organs)
Thorns (modified stems that help protect plant from attacks by large herbivores)
Herbivores (plant eaters)
Simple leaf (composed of just 2 major structures: blade and petiole)
Blade (expanded portion of leaf)
Petiole (stalk of leaf)
Compound leaf (have blades divided into series of leaflets)
Transcription (evaporative process)
Leaf arrangements:
Arranged to alternate on either side of stem
Paired opposite each other on stem
Arranged in whorl
Found in compact arrangement where internodes are extremely short-leading to rosette
growth form
Primary cell wall (supports cell and defines shape)
*only in plants*
Secondary cell walls (hard and rigid)
*only in plants*
Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma)
*only in plants*
Chloroplasts (site of photosynthesis)
*only in plants*
Vacuoles (store wastes and in some cases digest wastes)
*only in plants*
Cell sap (aqueous solution in vacuoles)
Tissue (group of cells that functions on unit)
Simple tissues (plant tissues that consist of single cell type)
Complex tissues (contain several types of cells)
Tissue systems
3 types of tissue systems include:
Dermal tissue system
Ground tissue system
Vascular tissue system
Dermal tissue system (consists of dermal tissue ["skin" tissue])
Epidermis (outermost layer of cells and represents interface between organism and
external environment)
*primary function to protect plants - from water loss, disease-causing agents, and
herbivores (for shoot systems)*
*root hairs, and functions primarily in absorbing water and nutrients (for root systems)*
Cuticle (waxy layer that forms continuous sheet on surface of leaves and stems)
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