PHIL 102 Chapter 7: Philosophy 102 Week 13 Notes

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PHIL 102
Ron Wilburn

Chapter 7: Deductive arguments: categorical logic 71 Deductive Relationships the state of affairs in which statement (1) is true and statement (2) can never occur when an argument is deductively valid, it is impossible for all the premises to be true and the conclusion false. Example of a formally valid argument: (1) All consistent vegetarians are opponents of using animals for leather. (2) No opponents of using animals for leather are fur trappers. So, (3) No consistent vegetarians are fur trappers. Deductively valid arguments always satisfy R and G, though they may fail to satisfy A. Example: Robert is a brother entails Robert is male because of what it means to be a brother. 72 Four Categorical Forms categorical logic a branch of formal logic in which the basic logical terms are all, some, no, are, and not universal afrmation all members of S are P example: All sisters are female persons universal negation No S are P example: no sisters are male persons particular afrmation some S are P example: some sisters are pianists particular negation statement of the form Some S are not P example: some sisters are not pianists square of opposition an arrangement of the four categorical forms the opposition is apparent form the diagonals on the square contradictory that statement that must always be opposite to the original statement in truth value subcontrary statements an I statement and an O statement with the same subject and predicate ca both be true, but they cannot both be false 1 of
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