ANTH 4021 Chapter 18: T18 Sapir

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18 Oct 2019
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ƵƚŚŽƌ;ƐͿ͗ĚǁĂƌĚ^ĂƉŝƌ͖ĚŝƐƚŝŶŐƵŝƐŚĞĚůŝŶŐƵŝƐƚŝĐĂŶƚŚƌŽƉŽůŽŐŝƐƚĂŶĚƐƚƵĚĞŶƚŽĨ&ƌĂŶnjŽĂƐ
ĞŶƚƌĂůůĂŝŵƐŽƌWƵƌƉŽƐĞ͗ƉĂƚƚĞƌŶƐŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌĂƌĞŶŽƚŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌŝůLJƉƌĂĐƚŝĐĂůďƵƚΗĂĞƐƚŚĞƚŝĐΗ͖ŝƚŝƐ
ďĞƚƚĞƌĨŽƌƉĞŽƉůĞƚŽďĞƵŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐƚŚĂŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐŽĨƚŚĞŝƌŽǁŶďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌƉĂƚƚĞƌŶƐ
KƵƚůŝŶĞ͗
KŶůLJŬŝŶĚŽĨƉƐLJĐŚŽůŽŐLJƚŚĂƚĞdžƉůĂŝŶƐƚŚĞďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌŽĨƚŚĞŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůĂůƐŽĞdžƉůĂŝŶƐƚŚĞďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌŽĨ
ƐŽĐŝĞƚLJ
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^ŽĐŝĂůďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌŝƐŵĞƌĞůLJƚŚĞƐƵŵŽƌ͕ďĞƚƚĞƌ͕ĂƌƌĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚŽĨƐƵĐŚĂƐƉĞĐƚƐŽĨŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌĂƐ
ĂƌĞƌĞĨĞƌƌĞĚƚŽĐƵůƚƵƌĞƉĂƚƚĞƌŶƐƚŚĂƚŚĂǀĞƚŚĞŝƌƉƌŽƉĞƌĐŽŶƚĞdžƚͲ ŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞ
ŝŵƉƵƚĞĚƚŽĂĐƚƵĂůďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌďLJĂƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞŽĨƐĞůĞĐƚŝŽŶ
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dŽƐĂLJƚŚĂƚƚŚĞŚƵŵĂŶďĞŝŶŐďĞŚĂǀĞƐŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůůLJĂƚŽŶĞŵŽŵĞŶƚĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĂůůLJĂƚĂŶŽƚŚĞƌŝƐĂďƐƵƌĚ
/ƚŝƐĨƵƚŝůĞƚŽĐůĂƐƐŝĨLJŚƵŵĂŶĂĐƚƐĂƐŽĨŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůŽƌƐŽĐŝĂůƐŝŐŶŝĨŝĐĂŶĐĞ
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džĂŵƉůĞŽĨďƌĞĂƚŚŝŶŐ
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/ŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌŝƐŐĞŶĞƌĂůŵŽĚĞŽĨĐŽŶĚƵĐƚƚŚĂƚŝƐŝŵƉƵƚĞĚƚŽƚŚĞƐŽĐŝĞƚLJ
ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚƐŽĨ/ŶĚŝĂŶƌŝƚƵĂůƐŶŽƚƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐͬƚĂŬŝŶŐĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĐŽŶƚĞdžƚŝŶƚŽĂĐĐŽƵŶƚ
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ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůƉĂƚƚĞƌŶĚĞĨŝŶĞĚŝŶƚĞƌŵƐŽĨĨƵŶĐƚŝŽŶĂŶĚĨŽƌŵ
WĂƚƚĞƌŶƐŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌŶŽƚŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌŝůLJĚŝƐĐŽǀĞƌĞĚďLJƐŝŵƉůĞŽďƐĞƌǀĂƚŝŽŶ
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hŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐŶĂƚƵƌĞƐƚĞŵƐĨƌŽŵƚLJƉŝĐĂůƵŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐŶĞƐƐŽĨŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐƚŽƚŚĞƐŝŐŶŝĨŝĐĂŶĐĞŽĨ
ĐŽŶĚƵĐƚ;ĐĂƵƐĞƐŵŽƌĞƉƌŽďůĞŵƐƚŚĂŶŝƚƐŽůǀĞƐͿ
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>ĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĞdžĂŵƉůĞ
EĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJŶŐůŝƐŚƉůƵƌĂůŝƐƐŽŵĞǁŚĂƚƵŶŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJŝŶĨƵŶĐƚŝŽŶĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚŝƐĂŶĂĞƐƚŚĞƚŝĐ
ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚ
DĂŶLJůŝŶŐƵŝƐƚŝĐǀĂƌŝĞƚŝĞƐ͕ƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚŝĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĨŽƌŵƐ
zĂŶĂĞdžĂŵƉůĞ
hŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐĐŽŶƚƌŽůŽĨĐŽŵƉůŝĐĂƚĞĚůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞĐŽŶĨŝŐƵƌĂƚŝŽŶƐŝƐŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůůLJĂĐƋƵŝƌĞĚŝŶ
ƐŽĐŝĂůƚĞƌŵƐ
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'ĞƐƚƵƌĞĞdžĂŵƉůĞŝŶĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨƵŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐĐƵůƚƵƌĂůƉĂƚƚĞƌŶƐ
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/ĚĞĂŽĨǁĞĂůƚŚŝŶĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶƚĐƵůƚƵƌĞƐ
tĞƐƚŽĂƐƚ/ŶĚŝĂŶƐŽĨƌŝƚŝƐŚŽůƵŵďŝĂĞdžĂŵƉůĞ
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WĞŽƉůĞĚŽǁŚĂƚƚŚĞLJĚŽďĞĐĂƵƐĞƚŚĞLJŚĂǀĞĨŽƵŶĚŝƚĞĂƐŝĞƐƚĂŶĚĂĞƐƚŚĞƚŝĐĂůůLJŵŽƐƚƐĂƚŝƐĨĂĐƚŽƌLJƚŽ
ƉĂƚƚĞƌŶƚŚĞŝƌĐŽŶĚƵĐƚŝŶĂĐĐŽƌĚĂŶĐĞǁŝƚŚŵŽƌĞŽƌůĞƐƐĐůĞĂƌůLJŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĞĚĨŽƌŵƐŽĨďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌŝŶ
ǁŚŝĐŚŶŽŽŶĞŝƐŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůůLJƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞĨŽƌ
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hƐĞůĞƐƐĨŽƌƚŚĞŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƚŽĐĂƌƌLJƚŚĞĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐŽĨŚŝƐĐƵůƚƵƌĂůƉĂƚƚĞƌŶƐĂƌŽƵŶĚǁŝƚŚŚŝŵ
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ŽŶƚĞdžƚ͗
/ŶǁŚĂƚŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĐŽŶƚĞdžƚŝƐŝƚǁƌŝƚƚĞŶ͍ϭϵϮϳ
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<ŝŶĚƐŽĨZĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ
tŚĂƚĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐĂƌĞĚĞĨŝŶĞĚĂŶĚƵƐĞĚ͍
/ŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĂůďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌ͗ďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌŽĨŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌǁŝƚŚƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƚŽ
ƐŽĐŝĂů͕ŽƌĐƵůƚƵƌĂů͕ƉĂƚƚĞƌŶƐ͖ƐŽŵĞƚŝŵĞƐŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐďĞŚĂǀĞŽŶƚŚĞŝƌŽǁŶ͕ǁŚŝůĞĂƚŽƚŚĞƌ
ƚŝŵĞƐƚŚĞLJďĞŚĂǀĞŝŶĂĐĐŽƌĚĂŶĐĞǁŝƚŚŶŽƌŵƐŽĨĐŽŶĚƵĐƚ
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^ŽĐŝĂůƵŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐŶĞƐƐ͗ƵŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐŶĞƐƐĂƐĐƌŝďĞĚƚŽŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐďƵƚŶŽƚƐŽĐŝĞƚLJ;ĚŝƐĂŐƌĞĞƐ
ǁŝƚŚƵƌŬŚĞŝŵŐƌŽƵƉŵŝŶĚƚŚĞŽƌLJͿ
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hŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐƉĂƚƚĞƌŶŝŶŐ͗ďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌŝŶĂĐĐŽƌĚĂŶĐĞǁŝƚŚĂŐĞŶĞƌĂůŝnjĞĚŵŽĚĞŽĨĐŽŶĚƵĐƚƚŚĂƚ
ƉĞŽƉůĞĞŶŐĂŐĞŝŶŝŶƚƵŝƚŝǀĞůLJĂŶĚƵŶŬŶŽǁŝŶŐůLJ͖ƉĂƚƚĞƌŶĞĚďĞŚĂǀŝŽƌǁĂƐƵŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐďĞĐĂƵƐĞ͕
ŝĨŝƚǁĞƌĞĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐ͕ŝƚǁŽƵůĚďĞƚŽŽƚŝŵĞͲĐŽŶƐƵŵŝŶŐƚŽĞŶĂĐƚ
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ŽĞƐƚŚĞƚĞdžƚĂƉƉĞĂůƚŽĂƚŚĞŽƌLJŽƌƚŚĞŽƌŝĞƐ͍
ŽŐŶŝƚŝǀĞĂŶƚŚƌŽƉŽůŽŐLJͲ ĐƵůƚƵƌĞĂƐĂŵĞŶƚĂůΗŵĂƉΗŽĨŝŶƚĞƌůŽĐŬŝŶŐĂŶĚŚŝĞƌĂƌĐŚŝĐĂůůLJ
ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĞĚĐŽŶĐĞƉƚĂŶĚĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝĞƐ
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^ĂƉŝƌͲ dŚĞhŶĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐWĂƚƚĞƌŶŝŶŐŽĨĞŚĂǀŝŽƌŝŶ^ŽĐŝĞƚLJ
tĞĚŶĞƐĚĂLJ͕ƵŐƵƐƚϮϴ͕ϮϬϭϵ
ϭϬ͗ϰϲD
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