ANTH 4021 Chapter 23: T23 Steward and Harris

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4 Nov 2019
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ƵƚŚŽƌ;ƐͿ͗:ƵůŝĂŶ^ƚĞǁĂƌĚ͕ƌĞĐĞŝǀĞĚŽĂƐŝĂŶƚƌĂŝŶŝŶŐďƵƚĚŝƐƉƵƚĞĚŵĂŶLJƚŚĞŽƌŝĞƐŽĨƚŚĞƚŝŵĞ
ĞŶƚƌĂůůĂŝŵƐŽƌWƵƌƉŽƐĞ͗ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞŚŽǁƉĂƌƚŝĐƵůĂƌĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐŽĨƉĂƚƌŝůŝŶĞĂůďĂŶĚƐĂƌĞĂŶĂĚĂƉƚŝǀĞ
ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƚŽƚŚĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂŶĚĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞƚŚĂƚƚŚĞƐĂŵĞĐŽŶƐƚĞůůĂƚŝŽŶŽĨĐƵůƚƵƌĂůƚƌĂŝƚƐĐĂŶďĞ
ĨŽƵŶĚǁŚĞƌĞǀĞƌƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĂŶĚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůĐŽŶĚŝƚŝŽŶƐĂƌĞƐŝŵŝůĂƌ
KƵƚůŝŶĞ͗
ĂƵƐĂůƉƌŽĐĞƐƐĞƐŽĨĐƵůƚƵƌĞĨŽƵŶĚŝŶƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJĂŶĚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͖ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůƉĂƚƚĞƌŶƐĂƐĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶƐ
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ƵůƚƵƌĂůĐŽƌĞͲ ƚƌĂŝƚƐĐůŽƐĞƐƚƚŽƐƵďƐŝƐƚĞŶĐĞĂĐƚŝǀŝƚŝĞƐĂŶĚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂƌƌĂŶŐĞŵĞŶƚƐ
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WĂƚƌŝůŝŶĞĂůďĂŶĚŝƐƚŚĞŝŶĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚƉƌŽĚƵĐƚŽĨƐŝŵŝůĂƌƉĂƚƚĞƌŶƐŽĨĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶŽĨƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJĂŶĚ
ĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƐŽĐŝĂůĨŽƌŵƐƚŽƚŚĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ
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ƵůƚƵƌĂůĞĐŽůŽŐLJͲ ŚƵŵĂŶůĂďŽƌǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ
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ƵůƚƵƌĞǁĂƐĂĨŽƌŵŽĨĂĚĂƉƚĂƚŝŽŶĂŶĚĐĞƌƚĂŝŶĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĨŽƌŵƐĂƌĞůŝŬĞůLJƚŽŽĐĐƵƌƵŶĚĞƌƉĂƌƚŝĐƵůĂƌ
ĐŽŶĚŝƚŝŽŶƐŽĨƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJĂŶĚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ
ͻ
dĞŚƵĞůĐŚĞŽĨWĂƚĂŐŽŶŝĂͲ ŚŽƌƐĞůĞĚƚŽŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞŝŶďĂŶĚƐŝnjĞ;ůŝŶŬŝŶŐƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĂů
ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞͿ
ŽŶŶĞĐƚŝŽŶďĞƚǁĞĞŶĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĂŶƚŚƌŽƉŽůŽŐLJĂŶĚĂƌĐŚĂĞŽůŽŐLJƚŚĂƚǁŽƵůĚůĞĂĚƚŽŶĞǁ
ĂƌĐŚĂĞŽůŽŐLJ
ż
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ƌŝƚŝƋƵĞŽĨŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůƉĂƌƚŝĐƵůĂƌŝƐŵĂŶĚĨƵŶĐƚŝŽŶĂůŝƐŵ
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WĂƚƌŝůŝŶĞĂůďĂŶĚĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ
WŽƉƵůĂƚŝŽŶĚĞŶƐŝƚLJŽĨŽŶĞƉĞƌƐŽŶŽƌůĞƐƐƉĞƌƐƋƵĂƌĞŵŝůĞ;ĐĂƵƐĞĚďLJŚƵŶƚŝŶŐĂŶĚŐĂƚŚĞƌŝŶŐ
ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJŝŶĂƌĞĂƐŽĨƐĐĂƌĐĞǁŝůĚĨŽŽĚƐͿ
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ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚŝŶǁŚŝĐŚƉƌŝŶĐŝƉĂůĨŽŽĚŝƐŐĂŵĞƚŚĂƚŝƐŶŽŶŵŝŐƌĂƚŽƌLJĂŶĚƐĐĂƚƚĞƌĞĚ
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dƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƚŝŽŶƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƚĞĚƚŽŚƵŵĂŶĐĂƌƌŝĞƌƐ
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ƵůƚƵƌĂůͲƉƐLJĐŚŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĨĂĐƚƚŚĂƚŐƌŽƵƉƐŽĨŬŝŶĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌŝŶƚŝŵĂƚĞůLJĂŶĚƐĞĞŬŽƵƚƐŝĚĞ
ŐƌŽƵƉĨŽƌŵĂƌƌŝĂŐĞ;ĞdžŽŐĂŵLJͿ
ż
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ƵůƚƵƌĞĂƌĞĂƚŚĞŽƌŝƐƚƐƚĞŶĚĞĚƚŽƐĞĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂƐĂƉĂƐƐŝǀĞĨĂĐƚŽƌƉůĂĐŝŶŐďƌŽĂĚƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƚŝǀĞ
ůŝŵŝƚƐŽŶĐƵůƚƵƌĂůƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚŝĞƐ͘^ƚĞǁĂƌĚƐĂǁƚŚĞĐŽŵďŝŶĂƚŝŽŶŽĨƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJĂŶĚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂƐ
ƉůĂLJŝŶŐĂĨĂƌŵŽƌĞĐĂƵƐĂůƌŽůĞŝŶĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶŝŶŐƐŽĐŝĂůƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ
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^ƚĞǁĂƌĚĚĞƉĞŶĚƐŽŶƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕ƚŚĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂŶĚƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐƉƐLJĐŚŽůŽŐLJ
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DƵůƚŝůŝŶĞĂƌĞǀŽůƵƚŝŽŶŝƐŵ͗ƐŚŽǁŝŶŐŚŽǁƉĂƌƚŝĐƵůĂƌĐƵůƚƵƌĞƐĐŚĂŶŐĞĚĂŶĚĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ
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^ƚĞǁĂƌĚĂƚƚĞŵƉƚƐƚŽĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐŚĞďĞůŝĞǀĞƐĂƌĞƐĞĐŽŶĚĂƌLJŚĂǀĞůŝƚƚůĞ
ĐĂƵƐĂůƐŝŐŶŝĨŝĐĂŶĐĞĨŽƌƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĐŽƌĞǁŚŝĐŚĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐŽĨƐƵďƐŝƐƚĞŶĐĞƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͕ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ͕ĂŶĚ
ƐŽĐŝĂůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ
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ƌŝƚŝƋƵĞƐŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůƉĂƌƚŝĐƵůĂƌŝƐŵĂŶĚŝƚƐĐĂƚĂůŽŐŝŶŐŽĨĐƵůƚƵƌĂůƚƌĂŝƚƐ
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ŽŶƚĞdžƚ͗
/ŶǁŚĂƚŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĐŽŶƚĞdžƚŝƐŝƚǁƌŝƚƚĞŶ͍WĂƌĂĚŝŐŵŽĨΗŶĂƚƵƌĂůΗŵĂůĞĚŽŵŝŶĂŶĐĞ
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<ŝŶĚƐŽĨZĞĂƐŽŶŝŶŐ
tŚĂƚĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐĂƌĞĚĞĨŝŶĞĚĂŶĚƵƐĞĚ͍
ƚĞƌŝĂůŝƐŵ͗ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůĐŽŶĚŝƚŝŽŶƐĐŽŶĚŝƚŝŽŶŝĚĞĂƐ
ż
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ǀŝĚĞŶĐĞ
&ƌŽŵǁŚĂƚƐŽƵƌĐĞƐĂƌĞƚŚĞĞǀŝĚĞŶĐĞƚĂŬĞŶĨƌŽŵ͍ƚŚŶŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐĂŶĚŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐĂůĂĐĐŽƵŶƚƐ
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ƌĞƚŚĞƐĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐƉƌŝŵĂƌLJŽƌƐĞĐŽŶĚĂƌLJ͍WƌŝŵĂƌLJĂŶĚƐĞĐŽŶĚĂƌLJ
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ǀĂůƵĂƚŝŽŶ
ƌĞƚŚĞƌĞŐĂƉƐ͕ůĞĂƉƐ͕ŽƌŝŶĐŽŶƐŝƐƚĞŶĐŝĞƐŝŶƚŚĞĂƌŐƵŵĞŶƚ͍KĨƚĞŶĞdžƉůĂŝŶĞĚĂǁĂLJƚŚŝŶŐƐƚŚĂƚ
ĚŝĚŶΖƚĨŝƚ͖ŶŽƚƌĞůŝĂďůĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ;ĞǀŝĚĞŶĐĞůĂƚĞƌƐŚŽǁŶƚŽďĞŝŶǀĂůŝĚŽƌŽŶůLJƉĂƌƚŝĂůůLJĐŽƌƌĞĐƚͿ
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ƵƚŚŽƌ;ƐͿ͗DĂƌǀŝŶ,ĂƌƌŝƐ
ĞŶƚƌĂůůĂŝŵƐŽƌWƵƌƉŽƐĞ͗ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůŝƐŵ͖/ŶĚŝĂŶďĞůŝĞĨƐĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞƐĂĐƌĞĚŶĞƐƐŽĨĐĂƚƚůĞŚĂǀĞĂŶ
ĞŵƉŝƌŝĐĂůĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĞdžƉůĂŶĂƚŝŽŶƚŚĂƚƚĂŬĞƐƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶĐĞŽǀĞƌƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐƚŽŶĚƵƚŚĞŽůŽŐLJ͖ĞdžƉůĂŝŶŝŶŐ
ƚŚĞƌĂƚŝŽŶĂůŝƚLJŽĨƚŚĞĂƉƉĂƌĞŶƚůLJŶŽŶͲƌĂƚŝŽŶĂůƉƌĂĐƚŝĐĞƐŽĨŶŽŶͲtĞƐƚĞƌŶƉĞŽƉůĞ
^ƚĞǁĂƌĚͲ dŚĞWĂƚƌŝůŝŶĞĂůĂŶĚ
tĞĚŶĞƐĚĂLJ͕ƵŐƵƐƚϮϴ͕ϮϬϭϵ
ϭϬ͗ϰϳD
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