ANTH 4021 Chapter 20: T20 Handout Theory

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4 Nov 2019
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&ƌĞŶĐŚ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůŶƚŚƌŽƉŽůŽŐLJ
ƵƌŬŚĞŝŵͲ ƚŚĞĞůĞŵĞŶƚĂƌLJĨŽƌŵƐŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶĂǁĞƌĞĐŽůůĞĐƚŝǀĞƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚĂƚŝŽŶƐŽĨƚŚĞ
ĐŽůůĞĐƚŝǀĞĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐŶĞƐƐŽĨƉĞŽƉůĞ͕ǁŚŝĐŚƉƌŽŵŽƚĞĚƐŽĐŝĂůĐŽŚĞƐŝŽŶĂŶĚƐŽůŝĚĂƌŝƚLJ
ƌĐĞůƵƐƐ;ϭϴϳϮͲ ϭϵϱϬͿ
ƵƌŬŚĞŝŵΖƐƐƚƵĚĞŶƚĂŶĚŶĞƉŚĞǁ
>ŝĨĞůŽŶŐƵƌŬŚĞŝŵŝĂŶ
hŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĚŶĂƚƵƌĞŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůĐŽŚĞƐŝŽŶͲ ΗƚŽƚĂůƐŽĐŝĂůĨĂĐƚƐΗ
WŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽŶŽĨƚŚĞŐŝĨƚǁĂƐƚŽďĞƐŽĐŝŽůŽŐŝĐĂůůLJŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĞĚĂƐĂŶĞŵďŽĚŝŵĞŶƚŽĨĂďĂƐŝĐ
ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůůŝĨĞ͕ƐŝƚƵĂƚĞĚĂƚƚŚĞŝŶƚĞƌƐĞĐƚŝŽŶŽĨĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶƚΗĚŽŵĂŝŶƐΗŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůůŝĨĞĂŶĚ
ĐŽŶƚĂŝŶŝŶŐǁŝƚŚŝŶŝƚŵĂŶLJƚLJƉĞƐŽĨŵĞĂŶŝŶŐƐ
^ŚŝĨƚƚŚĞĨŽĐƵƐĨƌŽŵƵƌŬŚĞŝŵΖƐΗŵŝŶĚΗŽĨƚŚĞŐƌŽƵƉƚŽƚŚĞŵŝŶĚƐŽĨŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ
ZĞĐŝƉƌŽĐŝƚLJͲ ĂƵŶŝǀĞƌƐĂůƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞŽĨĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞŐŽǀĞƌŶŝŶŐ͕ďĞƐŝĚĞƐĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ͕ƐŽĐŝĂů
ŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƚŝŽŶƐĂŶĚŬŝŶƐŚŝƉͲ ĂŶŝĚĞĂĞůĂďŽƌĂƚĞĚďLJ>ĞǀŝͲ^ƚƌĂƵƐƐ
ůĂƵĚĞ>ĞǀŝͲ^ƚƌĂƵƐƐ;ϭϵϬϴͲϮϬϬϵͿ
'ƵƌƵŽĨ&ƌĞŶĐŚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůĂŶƚŚƌŽƉŽůŽŐLJ͕ŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƚĞĚǁŝƚŚ&ƌĂŶnjďŽĂƐ
WƌŽƉŽƐŝƚŝŽŶƚŚĂƚƌĞĐŝƉƌŽĐĂůĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞĂŵŽŶŐƐŽĐŝĂůŐƌŽƵƉƐƉƌŽŵŽƚĞƐĂůůŝĂŶĐĞƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚ
ĨĂĐŝůŝƚĂƚĞƐŽĐŝĂůŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƚŝŽŶĂŶĚŵĂŬĞƐŽĐŝĞƚLJĐŽŚĞƌĞ
hŶŝǀĞƌƐĂůůŽŐŝĐŽĨĚƵĂůŝƚŝĞƐͲ ďŝŶĂƌLJŽƉƉŽƐŝƚŝŽŶƐ
WĂŝƌƐŽĨŵĞŶƚĂůĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƐƚŚĂƚĐƌĞĂƚĞƐŽĐŝĂůŵĞĂŶŝŶŐ
dŚĞƌĞůĂƚŝŽŶƐŚŝƉďĞƚǁĞĞŶĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐŝƐĂƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĂƐƚŚĞĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐƚŚĞŵƐĞůǀĞƐ
^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůŝƐŵ Ͳ ďŝŶĂƌLJŽƉƉŽƐŝƚŝŽŶƐĂƌĞƉĂƌƚŽĨĂŶŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚƐLJƐƚĞŵŽĨůŽŐŝĐĂůůLJĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚ
ĐĂƚĞŐŽƌŝĞƐŽĨŵĞĂŶŝŶŐƚŚĂƚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐŽĐŝĂůĂĐƚŝǀŝƚLJĂŶĚƚŚĞǁĂLJŝŶǁŚŝĐŚƚŚĂƚĂĐƚŝǀŝƚLJŝƐ
ĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƵĂůŝnjĞĚ
ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽ>ĞǀŝͲ^ƚƌĂƵƐƐ͕ŐĞŶĞƌĂůŝnjĞĚĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞƉƌŽŵŽƚĞƐŵŽƌĞƐŽůŝĚĂƌŝƚLJƚŚĂŶƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƚĞĚ
ĞdžĐŚĂŶŐĞďĞĐĂƵƐĞŝƚĐƌĞĂƚĞƐĂůůŝĂŶĐĞƐŝŶǀŽůǀŝŶŐŵŽƌĞŬŝŶƐŚŝƉŐƌŽƵƉƐ
ZĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞĨŽƌƚŚĞƐŝŶŐůĞŵŽƐƚŽƌŝŐŝŶĂůďŽĚLJŽĨƚŚĞŽƌLJĂŶĚǁƌŝƚŝŶŐƚŽĞŵĞƌŐĞŝŶƚŚĞ
ĚŝƐĐŝƉůŝŶĞ
ĚŵƵŶĚ>ĞĂĐŚĂŶĚƌLJŽƵŐůĂƐ
DŽƐƚĂƌƚŝĐƵůĂƚĞĞdžƉŽŶĞŶƚƐŽĨ>ĞǀŝͲ^ƚƌĂƵƐƐΖƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůŝƐŵĚƵƌŝŶŐƚŚĞϭϵϱϬƐĂŶĚϭϵϲϬƐ
ĚŵƵŶĚ>ĞĂĐŚ
ƌŝƚŝƐŚƐŽĐŝĂůĂŶƚŚƌŽƉŽůŽŐŝƐƚ
ŝƐƚŝŶĐƚŝǀĞĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚƚŽƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůͲĨƵŶĐƚŝŽŶĂůŝƐŵ
&ůƵŝĚĂŶĚŚŝŐŚůLJĐŚĂŶŐĞĂďůĞĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůůŝĨĞ
džƉůĂŶĂƚŽƌLJĨƌĂŵĞǁŽƌŬƚŚĂƚĞŶĂďůĞĚƐŽĐŝĂůƐĐŝĞŶƚŝƐƚƐƚŽĂƌƚŝĨŝĐŝĂůůLJΗĐĂƉƚƵƌĞΗƚŚĞ
ǁŽƌŬŝŶŐƐŽĨĂƐŽĐŝĞƚLJƚŚĂƚǁĂƐ͕ŝŶƌĞĂůŝƚLJ͕ĂůǁĂLJƐŝŶĂƐƚĂƚĞŽĨĨůƵdžŽƌ͕ƚŽĞŵƉůŽLJ>ĞĂĐŚΖƐ
ƚĞƌŵ͕ŽƐĐŝůůĂƚŝŶŐĞƋƵŝůŝďƌŝƵŵ
ƌLJŽƵŐůĂƐ
/ŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĞƌŽĨ&ƌĞŶĐŚƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůŝƐŵĨŽƌĂŶĂŶŐůŽƉŚŽŶĞƌĞĂĚĞƌƐŚŝƉ
hŶŝǀĞƌƐĂůĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐŽĨƉƵƌŝƚLJĂŶĚƉŽůůƵƚŝŽŶ
>ĂƚƚĞƌͲĂLJ^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůŝƐƚƐ
^ƚƌĂƵƐƐďĞůŝĞǀĞĚŝŶĐŽŐŶŝƚŝǀĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͖ƌŝƚŝƐŚƐŽĐŝĂůĂŶƚŚƌŽƉŽůŽŐŝƐƚƐďĞůŝĞǀĞĚŝŶƐŽĐŝĂů
ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ
^ƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůƌdžŝƐƚƐ
&ŽƌŵĂůŝƐƚƐ͗ŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶĞĚƚŚĂƚtĞƐƚĞƌŶĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐĂƉƉůLJƚŽŶŽŶͲtĞƐƚĞƌŶ
ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ
^ƵďƐƚĂŶƚŝǀĞƐ͗ŵĂŝŶƚĂŝŶĞĚƚŚĂƚtĞƐƚĞƌŶĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĐŽŶĐĞƉƚƐĚŽŶŽƚĂƉƉůLJƚŽŶŽŶͲ
tĞƐƚĞƌŶĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĞƐ
,ĂŶĚŽƵƚͲ ,ŝƐƚŽƌLJŽĨŶƚŚƌŽƉŽůŽŐŝĐĂůdŚĞŽƌLJ
tĞĚŶĞƐĚĂLJ͕ƵŐƵƐƚϮϴ͕ϮϬϭϵ
ϭϬ͗ϰϲD
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