Chord: two or more pitches sounding simultaneously and perceived as a vertical unit- as opposed to a
succession of individual pitches sounding one after the other and perceived as a linear unit. ("melody")
Cosmos: often translated as the "universe" but encompassing - especially in the Medieval world-
something far more significant than stars and planets. In the ancient world, the cosmos (Greek = kosmos)
meant the orderly arrangement of everything in a particular order)
Form: the "plan" or the architectural roadmap, of a piece of music (ie. how the "A" and "B" and "C"
sections are arranged in a particular order).
Harmony: a chord that exists within a particular harmonic context (i.e., having a harmonic function).
Melody: a succession of individual pitches sounding one after the other and perceived as a linear unit - as
opposed to two or more pitches sounding simultaneously and percieved as a vertical unit ("cord")
pitch: the highness or lowness of a sound.
rhythm: a sound pattern that coexists with the beat (pulse) pattern. While there may be four "beats" in a
measure, a "sound" pattern of short-short-short-short = 4 sounds (or) long-short-short = 3 sounds (or)
short-short-long= 3 sounds, etc. might be performed within the timespan of those four beats. In fact, there
might be a single sound sustained through the full length of the four beats. The "beat" is the marking of
time; "the rhythm" is "the music."
Lesson 1 (BIRTH OF POPMUSIC)
AJourney into the Dark Underworld of Music
> Mozart: considered to be the world's greatest composer of classical music; composer of symphonies and
> Irving Berlin: creator of show tunes in the Tin PanAlley subgenre
> Robert Johnson: the blues singer, blues guitarist, and blue composer of the Mississippi Delta
> Lady Gaga: inventor of the meat hat.
Hansel and Gretel
> Hansel and Gretel used bread crumbs as a navigation device to find their way back to a point of origin.
> Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm- Brothers Grimm
> Most of our music wasn't concieved as "entertainment." Many of our popular songs had a higher
purpose- a vehicle to record a history, to express and teach values, to validate social and religious
Going Medieval on Music
> Doctor of Theology - graduate with the hood of the scarlet color > Doctor of Music (performance) - hood trimmed in a lesser but one still to God - pink.
> European universities (unis.) first formed during the MiddleAges; 3 separate curriculum separated into
three courses of study.
• Trivium: elementary course; focused on grammar, dialectic (logic) and rhetoric; one learned the
mechanics of the language, how to construct an argument using the Socratic method, and then
how to use language either to instruct or persuade.
• Quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. One not only learned the numbers and
how to manipulate them but also to apply those numbers to the highest degrees of logic and
• Studied philosophy and theology
> Music theory in the medieval world and Renaissance, was the study of logic applied to music;
moreover, it was dependent on mathematics to advance its arguments and to prove or disprove its
> The melodies, harmonies, rhythms, metered text (iambic, trochaic, etc.), and architectural forms of
music could all be expressed in mathematical proportions ranging from simple to complex.
The Rise of Popular Music
> Musicians walked the Medieval earth as scientists of the highest order.
> Practical musicians (composers and performers): write and perform music using symbols that
represent sounds. The music is written by formula; the practical reproduction is fairly straightforward and
requires little thought.
> Music theorist: uses letters of the alphabet,Arabic numerals, and Roman numerals (a