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BIOL 1141 (51)
John Hass (22)
Chapter 45

BIOL 1141 Chapter 45: Community and Ecosystem Ecology (ch. 45)

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University of Iowa
BIOL 1141
John Hass

Community: Assemblage of species interacting with one another within the same environment Species Richness: Number of species in a community Species Diversity: Variety of species that make up a community • Lists all the species in a community and also the relative abundance of each species Island Biogeography Model: Proposes that the biodiversity on an island is dependent on its distance from the mainland, with islands located a greater distance having a lower level of diversity Habitat: Place where an organism lives and is able to survive and reproduce Ecological Niche: Role an organism plays in its community, including its habitat and its interactions with other organisms • Includes methods the species uses to acquire the resources it needs to meet energy, nutrient, and survival demands Competitive Exclusion Principle: Theory that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same place and at the same time Resource Partitioning: Mechanism that increases the number of niches by apportioning the supply of a resource, such as food or living space, between species Character Displacement: Tendency for characteristics to be more divergent when similar species belong to the same community than when they are isolated from one another Predation: Interaction in which one organism (the predator) uses another (the prey) as a food source Predator: Organism that practices predation Prey: Organism that provides nourishment for a predator • A decrease in population can also occur, two possibilities are: o Perhaps the biotic potential (reproductive rate) of the predator is so great that is increased numbers overconsume the prey, and then as the prey population declines, so does the predator population o Perhaps the biotic potential of the predator is unable to keep pace with the prey, and the prey population overshoots the carrying capacity and suffers a crash, now the predator population follows suit because of a lack of food Prey Defenses: Mechanisms that thwart the possibility of being eaten by a predator • Camouflage: Process of hiding from predators in which an organism’s behavior, form, and pattern of coloration allow it to blend into the background and prevent detection • Cryptic Coloration: Blends them into their surroundings • Warning Coloration: Tells the predator that the prey is potentially dangerous Mimicry: Superficial resemblance of two or more species; a survival mechanism that avoids predation by appearing to be noxious Symbiosis: Relationship that occurs when two different species live together in a unique way; it may be beneficial, neutral, or detrimental to one or both species Parasitism: Symbiotic relationship in which one species (the parasite) benefits in terms of growth and reproduction to the detriment of the other species (the host) Parasite: Species that is dependent on a host species for surv
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