CHEM 1110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Nonmetal, Noble Gas, Electron Affinity

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8 Apr 2016
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CHEM 1110: Principles of Chemistry 1 – Chapter 7 Reading Notes
Dmitri Mendeleev organized elements by atomic Weight for the periodic table
oLeft blank spaces
Henry Moseley developed atomic numbers by hitting different elements with
high-energy electrons and finding ranges of frequencies
oAtomic number = number of protons in an atom
Coulomb’s law says the strength of the interaction between two electricy charges
depends on the magnitudes of the charges and on the distance between them
In a many-electron atom, each electron experiences a net attraction that is less
than it would be in the absence of other electrons
Effective nuclear Charge (Zeff) : electron experiences a net attraction that is the
result of decreased by electron-electron repulsions
oZeff < Z (actual effective nuclear charge)
oIncreases from left to right across any period of the table
oIncreases slightly as you go down a column
Nonbinding atomic radius/Van der Waal radius: the shortest distance separating
the two nuclei during collisions
Bonding atomic radius: ½ of the distance between the nuclei when two atoms are
bonded
Bonding atomic radius increases from top to bottom
oHappens because of increase in principal quantum number(n) of outer
elements
oFurther down you go the greater probability of electrons further from
nucleus
Bonding atomic radii decrease from left to right
oThe increase of Zeff draws the valence electrons closer to the nucleus,
causing the bonding atomic radius to decrease
When cations form, the number of electron-electron repulsions is reduced
oCations smaller than their parent atom
For ions carrying the same charge, ionic radius increases as you move down a
column
Isoelectronic series: group of ions all containing the same number of electrons
oNuclear charge increases as you move through the series of listsed by
atomic number
oIonic radius decreases with increased nuclear charge as the electrons are
more strongly attracted to the nucleus
Ionization energy: the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the
ground state of the isolated atom/ion
1st ionization energy: energy needed to remove the first electron from a neutral
atom
Every element has a large increase in ionization energy when the first of its inner
shell electrons is removed
I1 increases as you move across a period from left to right and decreases as you
move down a column
Either increasing the effective nuclear charge or decreasing the distance from the
nucleus increases the attraction between the electrons and the nucleus
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