PHIL 2429 Chapter Notes - Chapter 0: Pacifism, Consequentialism, J. Walter Thompson

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25 Dec 2016
War, Torture, and Terrorism
Section 3 & 4 Reading Notes
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Section #3: Realism
Realists: moral concepts should be employed neither as descriptions of nor as
prescriptions for state behavior
o Emphasize power and security issues and the need for a state to maximize its
expected self interest
Believe was is an inevitable part of an anarchical world
o Only should be resorted to if it makes sense in terms of national self-interest
o Once it begins, ought to do whatever it can to win
If following international law etc, hinders a state during war time, should
disregard them and promote self-interest
Descriptive realism- claim that states as a matter of fact either do not or cannot behave
o States not animated in terms of morality and justice
o All about power, security, and national interest
o The state is’t a ig perso ho’s orality a just apply
o Argument against DR: Walzer says states are responsive to morality because
they’re ade of individual people who want to act morally and justly
If a state oly ated poer ad to surie, oer tie it ould’t hae
support from its people which needs community and justice
Prescriptive Realism lai that a state ought prudet ought to ehave amorally in
terms of smart self-guard
o If a state is too moral, it will be exploited
o Might endorse regulation of warfare, but would refer to useful rules which
establish expectations of behavior and solve problems while just-war theorists
would talk about abiding moral values
Section #4: Pacifism
Pacifist rejects war in favor of peace because rejects killing and violence in general
Criticism of it lea hads poliy: paifists refuse to take the rutal easures
necessary for the defense of himself and his country for maintaining his own internal
o Free-rider: gathers benefits of itizeship ut does’t share urdes
o Constitutes internal threat to over-all security of state
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