PSYC 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8.2: Cholecystokinin, Neuropeptide Y, Reinforcement


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 201
Professor
Dr.Edna Ross, Dr.Paul De Marco, Dr.Matthew Edlin
Chapter
8.2

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8.3 Hunger and Eating
Hunger is a biological motive, but eating behavior is motivated by a complex interaction
of biological, social, and psychological factors
o When, what, how much, and how often you eat is influenced by an array of
psychological, biological, social, and cultural factors
Different culturedifferent food
Energy homeostasis: calories consumed= calories expended
o Food eatenenzymesabsorbed by intestinesconverted to amino acids, fatty
acids, and simple sugars
Glucose: simple sugar that provides energy and is primarily produced by
the conversion of carbohydrates and fatscommonly called blood sugar
Insulin: hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood levels of
glucose and signals the hypothalamus, regulating hunger and eating
behavior
Aout / of the od’s eerg is epeded for the routie phsial
activities of daily life, such as walking, brushing your teeth, and digesting
the food you eat
Reaiig / of od’s eerg is used for otiuous odil futios
that are essential to life, such as generating body heat, heartbeat,
respiration, and brain activity
Basal metabolic rate (BMR): when the body is at rest, the rate at which it
uses energy for vital functions, such as heartbeat and respiration
Energy that is not needed to meet your immediate bodily needs is
stored in the form of body fat called adipose tissue
o The liver monitors glucose levels in the bloodstream and
can utilize fat if needed
Eat too much more glucose is stored as body fat
Eat too little body uses more fat reserves
Short-term signals that regulate eating:
o Eating is not triggered by a drastic drop in blood glucose levels
But 30 minutes before you eat, you experience a slight increase in blood
levels of insulin and a slight decrease in blood levels of glucose
Once the meal is begun, the blood glucose levels return to their baseline
level
o Ghrelin: hormone manufactured by cells lining the stomach and is known as the
huger horoe eause it strogl stiulates appetite
Levels of ghrelin increases before meals and decreases after meals
o Triggered by psychological factors like classical conditioning and operant
conditioning
Classical condition: time of the day or other stimuli, such as the setting in
which you normally eat, or just the sight of food utensils, can become
associated with the anticipation of eating and trigger the physiological
signals that increase your sense of hunger
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