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Textbook Notes for Biology at University of Pennsylvania (UPENN)


UPENNBIOL 101Dal Dal; CasperFall

BIOL 101 Chapter Notes -Chemical Equilibrium, Unified Atomic Mass Unit, Atomic Mass

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Element of life: essential elements: consists of about 20-25% of the 92 natural elements. Iodine deficiency disease called goiter: atom: smallest unit
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UPENNBIOL 101Dal Dal; CasperFall

BIOL 101 Chapter Notes -Paramecium, Gene Expression, Dna Replication

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Properties of life: order, energy processing, growth and development, response to the environment, reproduction, regulation, evolutionary adaptation. 1
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UPENNBIOL 221BoniniFall

BIOL 221 Chapter 11: BIO221 Ch11

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Cell represses transcription of all genes encoding enzymes that are not needed, can activate genes encoding enzymes that are needed. If only lactose in
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UPENNBIOL 221BoniniFall

BIOL 221 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Prophage, Lysis, Auxotrophy

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Transduction = phages can pick up bacterial genes and carry them from one bacterial cell to another. Lederberg and zinder tested for recombination in s
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UPENNBIOL 221BoniniFall

BIOL 221 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Vertically Transmitted Infection, Plasmid, Chromosome

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Bacteria = prokaryotes, dna not enclosed in membrane-bound nucleus. Genome of most bacteria = double stranded dna in form of closed circle. Extra dna =
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UPENNBIOL 221BoniniFall

BIOL 221 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Contact Geometry, Chromosome, Bacteriophage

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Transformation =take up dna fragments from external medium. Source of dna can be other cells of same species/ cells of other species. If dna is of diff
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UPENNBIOL 221BoniniFall

BIOL 221 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Rolling Circle Replication, Hfr Cell, Auxotrophy

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> suggests that physical contact between 2 strains needed for wt cells to form. > growing each strain individually in un-supplemented minimal medium di
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UPENNBIOL 221BoniniFall

BIOL 221 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase, Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Null Allele

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Allelic series/ multiple alleles = known mutant alleles of a gene and its wild type allele. Dominance is a manifestation of how alleles of a single gen
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UPENNBIOL 221BoniniFall

BIOL 221 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Dna Replication, Model Organism, Chromosome

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Blending theory of inheritance = belief that inheritance worked like mixing fluids/ paint, but there were exceptions. > eg. tall parent + short parents
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UPENNBIOL 101Dal Dal; CasperFall

BIOL 101 Chapter Notes -Amyloplast, Cytosol, Rechargeable Battery

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UPENNBIOL 101Dal Dal; CasperFall

BIOL 101 Chapter Notes -Monosaccharide, Monomer, Hydrolysis

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UPENNBIOL 101Dal Dal; CasperFall

BIOL 101 Chapter Notes -Thiol, Casein, Peptide

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