A.Applied anthropology refers to the application of anthropological data, perspectives,
theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve social problems.
B. Applied anthropologists work for groups that promote, manage, and assess programs
aimed at influencing human social conditions.
C. Applied anthropologists come from all four subfields of anthropology.
1. Biological anthropologists work in public health, nutrition, genetic counseling,
substance abuse, epidemiology, aging, mental illness, and forensics.
2. Applied archaeologists locate, study, and preserve prehistoric and historic sites
threatened by development (a.k.a. cultural resource management).
3. Cultural anthropologists work with social workers, businesspeople, advertising
professionals, factory workers, medical professionals, school personnel, and
economic development experts.
4. Linguistic anthropologists frequently work with schools in districts with a wide
range of languages.
II. The Role of theAppliedAnthropologist
A.Anthropologists have held three views about applying anthropology.
1. The ivory tower view contends that anthropologists should avoid practical
matters and focus on research, publication, and teaching.
2. The schizoid view holds that anthropologists should carry out, but not make or
3. The advocacy view argues that since anthropologists are experts on human
problems and social change, they should make policy affecting people.
a. Identify locally perceived needs for change.
b. Work with those people to design culturally appropriate and socially
c. Protect local people from harmful development schemes.
B. Professional anthropologists work for a wide variety of employers: tribal and ethnic
associations, governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), etc.
1. During World War II, anthropologists worked for the U.S. government to study
Japanese and German culture "at a distance."
2. Malinowski advocated working with the British Empire to study indigenous
land tenure to determine how much land should be left to the natives and how
much the empire could seize.
III. Ethics and Anthropology
A. Research Ethics
1. Responsibility to people and animals.
a. The primary ethical obligation of the anthropologist is to the people,
species, or materials he or she studies.
b. Researchers must respect the safety, dignity, and privacy of the people,
species, or materials we study. c. Researchers should determine in advance whether their hosts wish to
remain anonymous or receive recognition.
d. Researchers should obtain the informed consent of the people to be
studied and of those whose interests may be affected by the research.
e.Anthropologists who develop close relationships with individuals must
adhere to the obligations of openness and informed consent.
f. Anthropologists may gain personally from their work, but they must not
exploit individuals, groups, animals, or cultural or biological materials.
2. Responsibility to scholarship and science.
a.Anthropologists should expect to encounter ethical dilemmas during
b. Anthropologists are responsible for the integrity and reputation of their
discipline, of scholarship, and of science.
c. Researchers should do all they can to preserve opportunities for future
d. To the extent possible, researchers should disseminate their findings to
the scientific and scholarly community.
e.Anthropologists should consider reasonable requests for access to their
data for purposes of research.
3. Responsibility to the public.
a. Researchers should make their results available to sponsors, students,
decision makers, and other nonanthropologists.
b. Anthropologists may move beyond disseminating research results to a
position of advocacy.
B. Ethics Pertaining toAppliedAnthropology
1. The same ethical guidelines apply to all anthropological work-academic and
2. Applied anthropologists should use and disseminate their work appropriately.
3. With employers, applied anthropologists should be honest about their
qualifications, capabilities, aims, and intentions.
4. Applied anthropologists should be alert to the danger of compromising ethics as
a condition for engaging in research or practice.
IV. Academic and Applied Anthropology
A.After World War II, the baby boom fueled the growth of theAmerican educational
system and anthropology along wit