Chapter 16 HIS 142

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Department
History
Course
HIS 142
Professor
professorwidell
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 16 America’s GildedAge (1870- 1890) I. Statue of liberty a. October 28 1886 dedication of liberty enlightening the World. b. Edouard De Laboulaye created it c. In response to Lincoln assassination. d. 150 feet tall e. Stood as a symbol of friendship between the French and the U.S. and freedom II. The second industrial revolution a. Causes i. Many natural resources, large supply of labor, expanding market for manufactured goods, and availability of capital investment. ii. Government promoted industrial and agricultural development iii. Land for railroads, high tariffs to protect foreign competition. iv. Army used to remove Indians b. The industrial economy i. In 1913, U.S. produced 1/3 of world’s industrial output ii. 1880, majority ofAmerican workforce was involved in non farming jobs iii. 1890, 2/3 of U.S workforce earned a wage. iv. From 1870 to 1920, 11 millionAmericans moved from farm to city v. 25 million immigrants arrived. vi. New York grow to 3.4 million in 1898 vii. New York City financed the westward expansion and industrialization viii. Great lakes area industrial revolution included producing iron, steel, machinery, chemicals, and food. ix. Chicago- 1.7 million people, produced steel, farm machinery, and stockyards of cattle. c. Railroads and the national market i. Spurred “second revolution” ii. 1860-1880 railroad tracks tripled iii. 1886- trains of one company could travel on any company’s track iv. 1890’s 5 transcontinental trains moved goods west v. 1883, train companies divided nation into 4 time zones vi. National brand names were forming d. The spirit of innovation i. 1866, Atlantic cable: send electronic telegraph messages to Europe ii. Thomas Edison 1. Born in Ohio in 1847 2. Little edu. 3. 1882 Opened first electric generating station in Manhattan iii. Nikola Tesla 1. Born in Croatia 2. Immigrated to U.S. at age 28 3. Developed electric motor using the system of alternating current e. Competition and consolidation i. Fall in prices ii. 1873 to 1897 was the world’s great depression but the 1930’s iii. Trusts were made- legal devices that the affairs of rival companies were managed by a single director iv. 1897-1904 , 4,000 firms were lost to bigger companies v. U.S Steel, Standard Oil, and International Harvester controlled the market f. The Rise of Andrew Carnegie i. Andrew Carnegie 1. At 13 moved from Scotland to U.S 2. 1850’s got hired by Thomas Scott, leader of Pennsylvania Railroad 3. Carnegie then established a “vertically integrated” steel company 4. Ruled the steel industry 5. Factories in Homestead Pennsylvania 6. Gave wealth to philanthropies g. John D. Rockefeller i. Dominated oil industry ii. Controlled a monopoly on oil iii. 1880, Standard oil owned 90% of oil market h. Worker’freedom in an industrial age i. Benefits distributed unevenly ii. Little freedom to unskilled workers iii. Dangerous working conditions- 1880-1900 35,000 workers died on job iv. Poor working class i. Sunshine and Shadow: increasing wealth and poverty i. Classes became more divided ii. Rich attended good schools, build vacation homes, social clubs, and marries into each other’s families. iii. Upper class focused on “conspicuous consumption” iv. Working class lived in bad conditions III.The transformation of the west a. Introduction i. Home to 250,00 Indians west of Mississippi ii. Unsettled land iii. Aplace for people in the east to create a new beginning iv. Most moved west in family groups b. Adiverse region i. U.S. government gained west land 1. Going to war/ treaty with Indians 2. Regulated territorial politics 3. Distributed land to farmers 4. Administered land sales ii. Government played a huge role in westward expansion 1. Financed projects like dams and irrigation systems c. Farming on the middle border i. Thousands acquired land under the HomesteadAct ii. Farmers in the west were black, white, nativeAmerican immigrants from Canada,etc. iii. 1860, the Middle Boarder’s population (Minn., Dakotas, Nebraska, and Kansas) rose from 300,000 to 5 million in 1900. iv. Farming in Great plains difficult 1. Snakes 2. Drought 3. Women cared for cattle. While men worked on cash crop 4. Loneliness d. Bonanza Farms i. John Wesley Powell said farming would be difficult. More than 1family ii. Bonanza farms were farms that cover many acres and many families worked on it. iii. Railroads brought farmers goods iv. Farm prices steadily decreased due to economic depression in the world e. Large scale agriculture in California i. Large farms. ii. “not farms but plantations and estates” iii. Land monopolies f. The cowboy and the corporate west i. Mexican, black and white men did cattle drives ii. Open range for cattle iii. 1880’s cattle drives ended. Famers used barbed wire fences iv. 1890, more people lived in cities than farms in the west v. Oil discovered in LAin 1892 vi. California was the center point of the west’s economy vii. Logging, mining, and gold rushes dominated the west viii. New Mexico, land of sheep farming. Had railroads reach it in 1870’s. ix. ¾ of NM sheep belonged to 20 families g. The subjugation of the plains Indians i. Some Indians moved to Great Plains to use horses ii. Ex. Cheyenne, Crow, Sioux. iii. Migrants on the Oregon Trail experienced any hostile Indians iv. Battles occurred with settlers and Indians v. Ulysses S. Grant announced a peace policy but fighting still continued vi. Phillip H. Sheridan set out to destroy Indian economy h. “let me be a free man” i. 1877, O.O. Howard’s army chased the Nez Perce Indians 1,700 miles
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