Chapter 17 HIS 142

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University of Rhode Island
HIS 142

Chapter 17- Freedom’s boundaries at home and abroad 1890- 1900 The populist challenge I. The farmers’revolt a. Unrest in west and south. i. Falling agricultural prices ii. Farmers losing economic security iii. Drop in cotton due the Civil War iv. Farmers went into debt. Couldn’t pay back banks b. TheAlliance i. founded in Texas in 1870’s ii. loan $ to farmers and sell their produce iii. wanted government to set up warehouse where farmers could store produce iv. using the crops as a collateral, the govt. would loan $ to famers II. The people’s party (populist) a. 1890s,Alliance was made into the People’s Party b. Didn’t appeal to only famers.Appealed to “producing classes” c. Miners and industrial workers d. Focused on community organization and education e. Went around the country speaking about their political group f. Wanted government to operate in a businesslike manner to promote public good III. The populist platform a. 1892, adopted at Omaha’s convention b. Long list of how to restore democracy i. public ownership of the railroads ii. election of senators iii. government control of currency iv. income tax v. right for workers to form unions IV. populist coalition a. tried to unite black and white farmers b. Black farmers formed their own organization i. Colored Farmers’Alliance ii. Tried to strike c. Tom Watson, Georgia’s leading populist wanted alliance between black and white d. 1894, populists gained control of the state e. Populist presidential candidate James Weaver receives about 1 million votes V. The government and labor a. Government sent troops to breakup strikes b. Military was sent in 1892 in Iowa to stop a strike VI. Debs and the Pullman strike a. 1894, in Pullman, Illinois b. Sleeping railroad cars were made c. Astrike occurred from reduction of wages d. 150,000 members strike e. Richard Olney, Cleveland’s attorney general demanded military action f. Fights broke out between troops and workers. 34 people dead. g. Eugene V. Debs was jailed for violating judicial order VII. Populism and labor a. 1894, populist leaders tried to appeal to industrial workers Governor Davis White sent troops to protect striking workers against the police b. Many voters left Cleveland c. Many urban working classes moved to republican. They wanted to raise tariffs VIII. Bryan and free silver a. 1896 democrats and populists joined to support William Jennings Bryan for presidency b. “free silver” meant making more money which would raise the price of farm goods c. Wanted workers’unions, income tax and banking regulations IX. The campaign of 1896 a. Republics wants the gold standard b. McKinley’s campaign was 10million dollar and Bryan was 300,000 c. First modern election because of all the $ spent d. Banks were worried about Bryan’s idea for inflation e. McKinley put flyers, pamphlets and campaign buttons f. The Wizard of Oz represents g. McKinley passed Dingley Tariff of 1897 h. The gold standardAct i. 1896 high voter turnout The Segregated South I. The redeemers in power a. Merchants, planters, and business entrepreneurs dominated politics after 1877 were called the redeemers i. State budgets were slashed ii. Public building were closed like hospitals iii. Education was slashed and more people didn’t know how to read II. The failure of the new south dream a. The area went deeper and deeper into poverty b. New manufacturing jobs occurred c. In 1900, the south accounted for 60 percent of the nations’income d. The south had low wages and low taxes III. Black life in the south a. Uppersouth offered mining, iron furnaces, and tobacco factories b. S.C. and Georgia, black farmers acquired land and were self sufficient c. Deepsouth, black people owned less land d. Black men didn’t work in offices or factories e. Unions in the south excluded blacks IV. The Kansas exodus a. From 1879 to 1880 about 40k to 60k black emigrated to Kansas b. Benjamin Singleton gave out flyers and lithographs of Kansas as a beautiful state c. Blacks weren’t allowed in northern jobs because north didn’t hire many blacks. North wanted immigrants from Europe V. The decline of blacks politics a. Blacks casted votes in large #’s b. The NationalAssociation of Colored Women i. Founded in 1896 ii. Pushed for women’s rights iii. Aided poor families iv. Battled gambling and drinking problems with black people c. The Readjuster movement i. Black republicans and anti redeemers ii. Governed Virginia between 1879 to 1883 VI. The elimination of black voting a. 1890- 1906 southern states enacted laws meant to eliminate the black vote b. Poll tax- citizens would pay to vote c. Literacy tests d. In 1891 the senate defeated a proposal for protection e. Number of black voters declined VII. The law of segregation a. The Supreme Court invalidated the Civil RightsAct of 1875. Which outlawed discrimination by hotels, theaters, railroads, and public places. b. 1896, Plessy V Ferguson approved state to have separate facilities i. In Louisiana, The railroads had separate cars for black and white people ii. Citizens Committee iii. Homer Plessy refused to go to colored car iv. Albion W. Tourage was hired by the Citizens Committee to fight in the case v. In the court, the law was upheld because the railroads were separate but equal VIII. Segregation and white domination a. After Plessy, southern states segregated schools, hospitals,
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