1.1 Food Choices
1. Preferences- based on taste. Some like sweetness of sugar or saltiness of salt
2. Habit- eating a familiar food
3. Ethnic heritage and regional cuisines-
a. Ethnic foods- food associated with particular cultural groups
b. Cultural competence- having an awareness and acceptance of cultures and the
ability to interact effectively with people of diverse cultures.
4. Social interactions- people like to eat together
5. Availability, convenience, and economy- rising food costs have shifted consumer
priorities and shopping habits
6. Positive and negative associations- people like foods associated with happy occasions
7. Emotions- some people can’t eat when they’re upset
8. Values- food choices can reflect peoples religious beliefs, political views, and
9. Body weight and image- people eat well to look good
10. Nutrition and health benefits-
a. Functional foods- foods that contain bioactive components which provide health
benefits beyond their nutrient contributions
b. Phytochemicals- nonnutrient compounds found in plant. Phyto=plant
1.2 the nutrients
Energy- the capacity to do work. The body can convert this chemical energy to mechanical,
electrical, or heat energy
Nutrients – chemicals in food that provide energy, structural materials, and agents to support
growth, maintenance and repair tissues.
1. Nutrient composition of foods- most solid materials are carbs, lipids, and proteins
2. Nutrient composition of the body- 150 pound body has 90 pounds of water, 20 to 45
pounds of fat. The rest of the pounds are protein, carbs, and minerals. 3. Chemical composition of nutrients- simplest of the nutrients are minerals. Each mineral is
a chemical element, its atoms are all alike.
a. Inorganic- not containing carbon or pertaining to living things.
b. Organic- “alive” contain carbon
4. Essential nutrients
a. Essential nutrients are nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body
cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet needs.
5. Energy yielding nutrients- the nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use:
Carbs, fat and protein.
6. Energy measured in kCalories
a. The energy from carbs, protein and fats can be measured in calories- tiny units of
7. Energy from food
a. Carbs- 4kcalories. Agram of protein- 4kcalories and gram of fat is 9 kcalories
b. Energy of a food depends on how many fats, carbs and protein it contains
8. Energy in the body
a. When body uses carb, fat or protein as energy, bonds between the nutrients atoms
break.As the bonds break, they release energy. Energy is in the form of heat or
used to send impulses to the brain to move muscles.
9. The vitamins
b. Don’t provide energy
c. 13 vitamins
10. The minerals
b. Essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health c. 16 minerals
a. Essential nutrients and carries several minerals
1.3 The science of Nutrition
Genome- the complete set of genetic material in an organism or a cell.
Nutritional genomics- the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes
affect the interactions between diet and disease.
a. Subjects are divided into 2 groups. One receives the thing being test, one does
b. The group that does not receive the thing being tested is the control group
c. Randomization- the subjects are randomly choosen
2. Sample size- the s