Textbook Notes (363,550)
United States (204,628)
Psychology (131)
PSY 235 (11)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 notes

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Rhode Island
PSY 235
Taryn Aldrich

Chapter 2: How is personality studied and assessed? Subjective assessment: • Measurement relies on interpretation (unlike objective assessment) • Weaknesses: o Different observers make different judgments • Strengths: o Complex phenomena may be examined and valuable insight gained Reliability (1) • The consistency of the scores that are expected to be the same • Test-retest reliability o Measure of consistency over time Reliability (2) • Internal consistency reliability o Split- half reliability  Correlation between 2 halves of a test o Cronbach’s coefficient alpha  The average of all possible split half correlations  .80 minimum score for reliable results Validity (1) • Construct validity o The extent to which a test truly measures in theoretical construct • Convergent construct o A measure is related to what it should be related to • Discriminant validity o A measure is not related to what it should not be related to Validity (2) • Criterion- related validity o The measure can predict important outcome criteria • Content validity o The measure contains items that represent the entire domain of the theoretical construct Item selection • Items should be clear and relatively simple • Items should discriminate among test takers • Items should be inter-correlated o But not so highly that it is redundant • Total score of assessment should have a normal distribution o Avoid ceiling and floor effects o Sensitive to variability across the range of scores Response sets (1) • A bias in responding to test items that is unrelated to the personality characteristic being measured o Acquiescence response set  “Yes, agree, true of me” o Social desirability response set  “good” or correct answer  The answer that reflects well on the test taker o Reverse scoring  Reverse the scores for a certain part of an assessment Response sets (2) • To reduce the problem of response sets o Reverse code on some items o Use neutral wording o Include lie scales o Use several methods of assessments Ethnic and gender bias • A characteristic that is a strength in one group may be perceived as a weakness or deficiency in another • All tests make assumptions about the background of the test taker • Use care in interpreting results o Always consider the context Types of personality measures: Self report tests • Usually pencil and paper tests • Most common type of test • Examples: o Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) o Big-Five Inventory (BFI) o Affective Communication Test (ACT) Q Sort Tests • Pers
More Less

Related notes for PSY 235

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.