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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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PSY 235
Taryn Aldrich

Chapter 6 Behaviorist and learning aspects Classical conditioning of personality • Ivan Pavlov • Studied dogs ◦ Unconditioned stimulus (food) → unconditioned response (salivation) ◦ Neutral stimulus (bell) → unconditioned stimulus (food) → unconditioned response (salivation) ◦ Conditioned stimulus (bell) → conditioned response (salivation) • Unconditioned stimulus- unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response • Unconditioned response- unlearned response that occurs naturally in response to unconditioned stimulus • Conditioned stimulus- previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response • Conditioned response- is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus Classical conditioning • Generalization ◦ Conditioned responses can occur in response to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus • Discrimination ◦ Learning to tell the difference between different stimuli, responding only to the conditioned stimulus and not to similar stimuli • Extinction ◦ When pairing of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus stops ◦ Gradual decrease in the response to the conditioned stimulus • Classical conditioning can be used to explain emotional aspects of personality ◦ neurotic behavior ◦ phobias ◦ superstitious behavior ◦ etc. Origins of a BehavioristApproach • John B Watson ◦ Founded behaviorism ◦ Applied conditioning principles to humans ◦ Rejection of introspection ◦ Tabula Rasa approach ▪ John Locke The Radical Behaviorism of B.F Skinner • Personality IS a group of responses to the environment • Radical determinism ◦ All behavior is caused • Operant conditioning ◦ Behavior is changed by its consequences ◦ “Skinner box” (operant chamber) Operant Conditioning • The status of a consequence as reinforcement or punishment is empirically determined ◦ If the preceding response increases after the consequence occurs, it is a reinforcement ◦ If the preceding response decreases after the consequence occurs, it is a punishment • Reinforcement or punishment can occur through adding or removing a stimulus Skinner's Walden Two • Applied the principles of operant conditioning to d
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