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Psychology (131)
PSY 235 (11)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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PSY 235
Taryn Aldrich

Chapter 7 CognitiveAspects of Personality Roots in Gestalt Psychology • Human beings seek meaning in their environments • We organize the sensations we receive into meaningful perceptions • Complex stimuli are not reducible to the sum of their parts Gestalt Psychology • Is the triangle shown in the image or constructed in the mind of the viewer? Kurt Lewin's Field Theory • Life space ◦ All internal and external forces and their relationship to one another ▪ e.g., family, religion, work, etc • Contemporaneous causation ◦ Behavior is caused at the moment of its occurrence by all the forces acting at that moment Field dependence • Children's play preference ◦ Field independent children favor solitary play • Socialization patterns ◦ Field independent people emphasize autonomy over conformity • Career choice ◦ Field independent people prefer technological occupations • Interpersonal distance ◦ Field independent people tend to sit further away from a conversational partner • Eye contact ◦ Field independent people make less frequent and less prolonged eye contact with a conversational partner Schema Theory • Schema ◦ Acognitive structure that organizes knowledge and expectations about one's environment ◦ Determines how we think and act • Script ◦ Schema for familiar events ◦ e.g., eating at a restaurant Categorization • We tend to organize events, objects, and people into categories • Postive effects of categorization ◦ Quickly understand complex information ◦ Make likely inferences about new things • Negative effects of categorization ◦ Stereotypes ◦ Overlook individuating characteristics Control ofAttention • We notice salient environmental features and combine these with our current goals to decide where to direct our attention • Individual differences in attention ◦ e.g., attention-deficit disorder Social Intelligence • Knowledge and skill relevant to interpersonal situations ◦ Including: empathy, compassion, humor, etc. ◦ Emotional intelligence ◦ Emotion knowledge • Similar to Howard Gardner's “multiple intelligences” theory ◦ Interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence Explanitory Style • Acharacteristic way of interpreting life events • Optimism and Pessimism ◦ Optimistic style is generally associated with better outcomes ◦ Implications for achievement •
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