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United States (206,227)
Psychology (131)
PSY 235 (11)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8

4 Pages

Course Code
PSY 235
Taryn Aldrich

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Chapter 8 Trait aspects of personality History of trait approaches • Hippocrates' bodily humors ◦ Sanguine (blood)- helpful and cheerful ◦ Melancholic (black bile)- sad and depressive ◦ Choleric (yellow bile)- angry and irascible ◦ Phlegmatic (phlegm)- slow and apathetic ▪ Vomit inducing or blood letting used to “balance” out these traits • Character descriptions ◦ Theophrastus “Penurious Man” (over 2000 years ago) • Charles Darwin ◦ Individual differences are a topic for scientific study ◦ Individual differences can arise through evolutionary processes • Francis Galton ◦ Measurement of human abilities- intelligence testing Beginnings of the modern trait approach • Carl Jung ◦ Typology ▪ Small number of types ▪ Each person best fits one type ◦ 8 types (4 functions, 2 attitudes) ◦ Functions- sensing, thinking, feeling, intuiting ◦ Attitudes- introversion, extroversion Raymond B. Cattell • Used (and refined) factor analysis ◦ Data driven, not theory driven ◦ Reduced many different traits to sixteen trait clusters ◦ Surface traits- obvious/ observable traits ◦ Source traits- underlying traits that influenced cluster • 16 personality factors questionnaire (16 PF) • Collected many types of data ◦ Q data: based on questionnaires, standardized self report ◦ T data: objective tests ◦ L data: life stories, observations from others GordonAllport • Personality ◦ “The dynamic organization withing the individual of those psychosocial systems that determine his characteristic behavior and thought” ◦ Each person has unique qualities ◦ Philosophical, humanistic, scholarly approach ◦ Idiographic ▪ Individual uniqueness ◦ Started by finding every word in the dictionary to describe a person- 18,000 words total ◦ Divided traits into 3 dimensions ▪ Physical- height, hair color, eye color, weight ▪ Behavioral- outgoing, shy, aggressive, calm, relaxed ▪ Moral- honest, responsible ◦ Allport assumed traits can be inherited ▪ Building blocks of personality ◦ Regularities in behavior arise because: ▪ The individual views many situations and stimuli the same way ▪ Many of the individuals behaviors are similar in their meaning • Functionally equivalent ◦ Common traits ▪ Due to biological heritage and shared culture, there are some common traits • Ex: dominance inAmerican culture ◦ Personal dispositions ▪ Cardinal- person can be identified by a very obvious trait • Examples: ◦ Scrooge-mean ◦ The Grinch-pessimistic ◦ An angel- giving/generous ▪ Central- makes us predictable in certain situations, describes people in certain environments, traits not constant • Examples: ◦ Flirt ◦ Talking a lot ◦ Anxious ◦ URI being known as a “party school” ▪ Secondary- personal preferences (less reliable over time), cannot be assumed about a person • Examples: ◦ Taste in music ◦ Taste in food ◦ Religious beliefs ◦ Hobbies ◦ Proprium ▪ Core of personality ▪ Traits mentioned when a person describes him/herself ▪ Up to the individual, not controlled by an inner force like the ego ◦ Idiographic methods ▪ Take into account each persons uniqueness • Diaries, interviews, Q sort test ▪ Compensate for the limitations of nomethic methods ◦ Personal dispositions ▪ Goals, motives or style ▪ Cardinal dispositions (ru
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