CHEM 105bL Chapter 20: Organic Chemistry

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University of Southern California
CHEM 105bL
Parr Jessica

Chapter XX: Organic Chemistry I. Carbon - Carbon has four valence e- and tends to form four covalent bonds - Carbon is able to form double and triple bonds - Carbon tends to catenate (bond to itself to form chains, branches, and ring structures) II. Hydrocarbons - Hydrocarbons can be classified into four different types: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons - Alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes are known as aliphatic hydrocarbons, they are differentiated by the kinds of bonds between the carbon atoms Type of Types of Bonds Generic Formula Example Hydrocarbon Alkane All single 𝐶𝑛 2𝑛+2 Ethane Alkene One (or more) 𝐶2 2𝑛 Ethene double bonds Alkyne One (or more) 𝐶𝑛 2𝑛−2 Ethyne triple bonds - Structural isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures - - - Stereoisomers are molecules in which the atoms have the same connectivity but a different spatial arrangement - Optical isomers are two molecules that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of one another (aka enantiomers) - Any molecule that exhibits optical isomerism have a chiral which must have 4 different molecules attached to it - Properties of enantiomers differ in two ways: 1) the direction they rotate light; 2)their chemical behavior in a chiral environment III. Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons - Alkanes are referred to as saturated hydrocarbons because they are saturated with hydrogen n Name Molecular Formula n Name Molecular Formula 1 Methane 𝐶𝐻 6 Hexane 𝐶 𝐻 4 6 14 2 Ethane 𝐶2 6 7 Heptane 𝐶7 16 3 Propane 𝐶3 8 8 Octane 𝐶8 18 4 Butane 𝐶4 10 9 Nonane 𝐶9 20 5 Pentane 𝐶5 12 10 Decane 𝐶10 22 - Base names for alkanes are always -ane; groups that branch off are named as substituents (aim for lowest number) Structural Formula Name Structural Formula Name Methyl Isopropyl Ethyl Isobutyl Propyl sec-Butyl Butyl tert-Butyl IV. Alkenes and Alkynes - Alkenes and alkynes have fewer hydrogen atoms than the corresponding alkanes and are called unsaturated hydrocarbons - Alkenes and alkynes are named like alkanes with some exceptions o The base chain is the longest continuous carbon chain that contains the double/triple bond o The base name has the ending -ene for alkenes and -yne for alkynes o Number the base chain so that the double/triple bond gets the lowest number o Insert a number indicating the position of the double/triple bond before the base name - Geometric isomers can only be seen in alkenes (dou
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